Result of Service
Groundwater programme for the IGAD region
40 working days spread over 4 months
Duties and Responsibilities
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for the global environment. This consultancy position is located in the UNEP Africa Office in Nairobi, Kenya under the Healthy and Productive Ecosystems Sub-Programme.
The Horn of Africa is among the most fragile regions in Africa with high potential of conflicts with emanating from various factors including competition for scarce natural resources such as water and pasture. The region comprises 80% of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL). Climate change and environmental degradation, armed conflict, and political, economic and food crises continue to force people to flee to Northern Africa (North Africa and Europe); Gulf of Aden (Yemen and beyond); and Southern (South Africa and beyond).
Water availability is a key factor limiting development in the region. Almost all major development challenges of the region are either due to water shortage or have a potential to further aggravate the water scarcity problem. The region receives between 100 – 300 mm in the arid zone and 300 – 600 mm of rainfall per annum. The driving forces of water insecurity include rapid population growth, recurrent droughts, low crop production, disastrous floods, deterioration of basic natural resources, and inappropriate land use and land tenure systems.
The Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), one of the eight Regional Economic Communities recognised by the African Union, brings together Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda to promote regional cooperation and integration in the Horn of Africa. First established in 1986 as a regional integration organization addressing drought in the Greater Horn of Africa, IGAD’s mandate has been expanded to cover issues of development and peace.
In line with its mandate UNEP supports African countries in all areas of natural resources management. UNEP has been instrumental in the establishment of the African Ministerial Conference on Water (AMCOW) and continues to provide secretariat services to the African Ministerial Conference on Environment (AMCEN) both of which have set the agenda for natural resources management in line with Agenda 2063 of the African Union. In specific water resources management is central to the sustainability of natural capital in Africa and supports, among others, the health and livelihoods of communities, biodiversity, and food security in Africa. In addition, water is central to the peace and stability of the region. UNEP works closely with member states and regional economic communities to promote the environment pillar of sustainable development and the quest by countries to achieve the sustainable development goals as agreed in Agenda 2030.
Working closely with UNEP, the IGAD Secretariat organized the inaugural/ 1st IGAD Water Forum in 2014 which was held at UNEP Headquarters in Nairobi. UNEP and other partners are currently working with IGAD to organize the 2nd IGAD Water Forum to be held in October 2021. The focus of the 2nd IGAD Water Forum will be on groundwater under four sub-themes namely: 1) Groundwater for Peace and Stability, 2) Groundwater for Food Security and Climate Change, 3) Groundwater for Socio-economic Development, 4) Groundwater for Drought Resilience, and 5) Groundwater Capacity Building. One of the main outputs of the Forum will be a draft Groundwater Programme.
The purpose of this consultancy is to undertake the development of a groundwater programme that will be validated during the 2nd IGAD Water Forum.
The proposed IGAD Groundwater Programme will align to the Climate change and natural resources pillar of the UN Secretary General’s Strategy for the prevention of conflicts in the Horn of Africa in which water has been identified as the common denominator of all renewable natural resources in the region; and is key to peace and stability of the Horn of Africa.
The proposed IGAD groundwater programme will also align to the UNEP Medium Term Strategy under the Nature Action pillar as well as the Climate Action Pillar and be underpinned by data, environmental governance to enhance management of natural resources using ecosystems approaches and nature-based solutions.
The proposed IGAD groundwater programme will seek to address issues of sub-national, national and transboundary groundwater management and development; ensure sustainable management and utilization of groundwater resources; provide for institutional arrangements; encourage cooperation amongst member states; facilitate joint research and information collection, planning and data sharing on policies and measures undertaken.
The overall objective of this consultancy is to develop a groundwater programme for the IGAD region through a consultative process involving member states, IGAD Secretariat, and relevant development partners. The goal of the IGAD groundwater programme will, among others contribute to regional cooperation and integration by enhancing sub-national, national and transboundary groundwater management in the IGAD region. The programme will include groundwater resource governance, addressing climate change impacts on groundwater management and development, investment in groundwater development and the socio-economic dimensions and livelihoods issues, clear articulation of gender aspects in particular the emancipation of women in the groundwater management and development, improved capacities to address aquifer related problems at sub-national, national and regional levels, and the science policy interface to improve evidence- based policy and decision making including by enhancing the region’s capacity to provide geohydrological data and information for groundwater resources management and development.
Scope of Work
Under the overall guidance of the Regional Director of the UNEP Africa Office and the direct supervision of the Regional Sub-programme Coordinator for Ecosystems, the consultant in consultation with IGAD Secretariat, members of the IGAD Water Technical Advisory Committee, experts in national and regional bodies (groundwater, economists, gender, etc.), private sector experts (e.g. financiers, technology providers, service providers, etc.), and other key informants will develop a groundwater programme for the IGAD region based on a sound theory of change and pathways towards the intended outcomes and impact, analysis of past ongoing/ planned projects and initiatives, stakeholder analysis, risks and assumptions, areas of work/interventions, and estimated budget, etc.
The tasks involved in developing the IGAD Groundwater Programme will cover, inter alia, the following aspects:
a) Groundwater governance
Identify through a consultative process the priority areas of work that should be undertaken to strengthen sub-national, national and regional governance of groundwater management and development in the IGAD region by:
- Reviewing the relevant IGAD region policies and strategies, coordination mechanisms, etc. on groundwater resources management in the context of for integrated water resources management (surface water-groundwater interaction);
- Identifying where relevant, best practices on groundwater management and development from other regions and or continents with the view of informing the development of a key actions/pathway necessary for improving governance of groundwater management and development in the IGAD region;
- Reviewing the role and growth of groundwater use in selected urban areas in the IGAD region, and their current governance frameworks;
- Reviewing the institutional arrangements and capacity building requirements, including capacity to monitor aquifers as support, capacity to coordinate groundwater development, etc.;
- Reviewing the provisions for private sector engagement in groundwater management and development;
- Reviewing the roles of and the current provisions for women participation in the management and development of groundwater resources
- Highlighting the challenges, opportunities and gaps in governance from the reviews undertaken above; and the proposing pathways towards strengthening groundwater governance in the IGAD region.
Output: A set of recommendations based on a sound theory of change on the actions to be taken by IGAD Secretariat and member states (in partnerships with the support of development partners and the private sector) towards strengthening governance of groundwater management and development at sub-national, national and regional level.
b) Groundwater management
Identify the priority areas of work that should be undertaken to improve sustainable groundwater management at sub-national, national and regional levels in the IGAD region by:
- Review previous, ongoing and planned projects, initiatives, and programs etc. on groundwater resources management in the IGAD region (including in urban areas), covering the IGAD member states: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda. The review will include noteworthy initiatives by partners such as:
• Inland Water Resources Management (INWRM) Programme)
• Hydrological Cycle Observation System Project (IGADHYCOS)
• Internationally Shared Aquifer Resource Management Project (IGAD-ISARM)
• Drought Disaster and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI)
• Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC)
• Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development
• Mapping, Assessment and Management of Transboundary Water Resources Project (MAMTWR Project)
• AMCOW Pan-African Groundwater Program (APAGroP)
- Analysing the current and future implications of climate change impacts on groundwater with the view of identifying actions to address and or adapt to climate change for the sustainable management of groundwater resources in the IGAD region;
- Reviewing current research and development efforts on groundwater and data, information and knowledge management and sharing mechanisms;
- Analysing challenges, and areas of potential opportunities in the groundwater management approaches in the IGAD region;
- Using specific examples such as groundwater of Mt. Elgon, Merti aquifer, etc. identify critical gender issues/gaps and recommendations for improving gender considerations in national and transboundary aquifers ensuring monitoring and evaluation of gender equality and women’s empowerment in IGAD region and build knowledge and skills enhancement on gender equality and women’s empowerment through IGAD’s core water programme areas,
- Reviewing the need for joint planning and collaborative management of groundwater in view of climate change and conflict prevention measures associated with competition for water between different users, as well as the potential contribution of groundwater to regional stability and human migration;
- Reviewing the current roles of private sector in groundwater management including research and development, technological innovations, financing groundwater management, etc.
- Highlighting the challenges, opportunities and gaps in groundwater management from the reviews undertaken above; and the proposing pathways towards strengthening groundwater management in the IGAD region.
Output: A set of recommendations based on a sound theory of change on the actions to be taken by IGAD Secretariat and member states (in partnerships with the support of development partners and the private sector) towards strengthening groundwater management at sub-national, national and regional level.
c) Groundwater Development
Identify the priority areas of work that should be undertaken to improve sustainable groundwater development at sub-national, national and regional levels in the IGAD region by:
- Reviewing the status of groundwater development vis-a-vis the potential of groundwater development in the IGAD region and comparative analysis from other regions and or continents;
- Reviewing public and private sector investments and / financing of groundwater development in the IGAD region;
- Analysing the existing enabling environments and capacity of IGAD member states to facilitate groundwater development;
- Proposing appropriate mix of groundwater development options and financing mechanisms for the region based on the review undertaken above.
Output: A set of recommendations and actions to be taken by IGAD Secretariat and member states (in partnerships with the support of development partners and the private sector) towards strengthening groundwater development at sub-national, national and regional level and guided by best practices.
d) Validation of the draft IGAD Groundwater Programme
Conduct validation of the draft IGAD Groundwater Programme through stakeholders’ consultations and peer review by experts by:
- Presenting the draft IGAD Groundwater Programme for review by UNEP, IGAD, and other partners and incorporating comments as appropriate, and prepare a table indicating the comments received and how they were address;
- Presenting the draft IGAD Groundwater Programme to the members of the IGAD Water Technical Advisory Committee for the review and comments and incorporating their comments as appropriate, and prepare a table indicating the comments received and how they were address;
- Present the draft the draft IGAD Groundwater Programme to the stakeholders at the 2nd IGAD Water Forum and incorporating comments as appropriate; and prepare a table indicating the comments received and how they were address
IGAD Groundwater Programme: The main output of this consultancy is the Groundwater Programme for the IGAD region based on a sound theory of change and pathways towards the intended outcomes and impact, analysis of past ongoing/ planned projects and initiatives, stakeholder analysis, risks and assumptions, areas of work/interventions, and estimated budget, etc.
The consultant will work under the UNEP Africa Office in Nairobi, Kenya under the Healthy and Productive Ecosystems Sub-Programme under the direct supervision of Africa Coordinator- Ecosystems and Biodiversity Programme
Academic Qualifications: Advanced university degree (masters and above) in water resources management, hydrology, hydrogeology, groundwater, water governance, international waters or in a related discipline is required
Experience: At least 15 years of work experience in groundwater management issues at the national and transboundary levels with practical experience in regional cooperation in Africa and preferably in the IGAD region is required.
Language: Fluency in English is required for this consultancy
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