Result of Service
1. To deliver a state of play of desalination in the Mediterranean based on the most up to date surveys and studies as appropriate
2. To draft an updated version of MAP/MED POL Desalination guidelines to streamline ecosystem approach, GES, energy efficiency and ensure lower impacts on marine and coastal environment based on BAT and BEP.
1. Review available relevant studies (i.e Plan Bleu, SWIM project, etc)
2. Prepare a state of play report on the desalination sector in the Mediterranean based on existing data and impacts on marine and coastal environment
3. Prepare a short questionnaire to complete the state of play report and develop a list of indicators to assess desalination sector
4. Identify a list of emerging pollutions from the desalination sector for monitoring purposes
5. List the most up to date desalination BAT and BEP in terms of environmental impact and energy efficiency and low rate of GHG as well as brine generation and disposal methods
6. Based on the related best practices draft the table of content of updated new/desalination guidelines taking into account inter alia the following elements:
i. Land use
ii. Energy efficiency alternatives
iii. Sea water intake, brine and other chemical discharges and releases
v. Oceanological conditions and use of dispersion models
vi. Transboundary effects
vii. Socio-economic impacts
viii. Monitoring programme ( list of emerging pollutants and monitoring parameters)
ix. Check list for EIA study
x. Classification of desalination technology according environmental impacts, BAT and BEP
xi. Model of permit for construction/extension of sea water desalination plant and operation conditions
7. Develop updated new/desalination guidelines
8. Provide technical advice to Expert review meeting and MED POL FP meeting to review and complete the updated/new desalination guidelines
9. Draft a policy paper on potential measures on desalination in the Mediterranean
The Land-Based Sources and Activities (LBS) and Dumping Protocols of the UNEP/MAP Barcelona Convention provide an advanced legal framework for the regulation of waste disposal and releases into the Mediterranean Sea in an environmental sound manner. As desalination plant wastes are typically discharged directly through coastal outfalls or can be disposed of by ships, they fall under the provisions of both Protocols. Desalination plants require large quantities of energy, under the form of heat or of electricity, both of which are costly and potential sources of GHG emissions. In accordance with Article 14 of the ICZM Protocol, potential direct and cumulative indirect environmental impacts of projects on coastal area, including desalination plants, shall be considered.
UNEP MAP has developed desalination guidelines in 2004 that has been largely used by the Contracting Parties. Taking into account that recently the desalination sector has recognised extensive development, there is a need to undertake an evaluation of the implementation of these guidelines. Moreover, on the basis of the implementation of lesson learnt, the most recent relevant developments of know-how, BAT ad BEP, as well as the state of play of the desalination sector in the Mediterranean, including assessment of impacts on marine and coastal environment, it is necessary to update as appropriate the 2004 guidelines in order to provide the Contracting Parties with adequate technical guidance with the view to reduce to a minimum all environmental impacts and enhance energy efficiency of desalination plans as well as to maintain GES.
In this respect, the MED POL Programme of UNEP/MAP needs the services of a regional technical desalination expert to undertake an analysis of the state of play of the implementation of the 2004 UNEP/MAP desalination guidelines and recommend updated/new guidelines for consideration of an expert meeting and the MED POL FPs meeting.