In Tanzania progress on access to adequate WASH services has been very slow and highly inequitable with rural populations disproportionately deprived. According to Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS 2015-2016), 61% of households uses an improved source of drinking water, while only 19% have access to improved sanitation not shared, and an average of 10% practice open defecation. In rural areas, where the vast majority of the population live, the situation is far more critical where 73% households use unimproved latrines that does not protect them from fecal contamination.
Statistics on stunting in Tanzania are not any better. According to the TDHS 2015-2016, 2.7million (34%) of Tanzanian children suffer from stunted growth. In the UNICEF focus regions, the stunting rate is even higher (Njombe 50%, Iringa 50% and Mbeya 36%) above the national average of 34%.
The unmet need for WASH services in Tanzania is significant. While the provision of such services is a government priority, limited resources leave the need largely unaddressed. The Water Sector Development Program Phase II prioritizes the gaps, as elements within the plans target to improve rural water supply services, household sanitation and institutional WASH facilities.
Chronic exposure to the ingestion of fecal matter leads to environmental enteropathy which results in stunting (Checkley et al, 2008; Chambers and Von Medeazza, 2017). Available data shows that 40-60% of childhood malnutrition is attributed to poor WASH resulting in diarrhea and intestinal parasites. Recent data suggests that diarrhoea may only be the ‘tip of the iceberg’ with non-diarrhoea faecally transmitted infections referred to as Environmental Enteropathy (EE) having greater adverse effects on children’s nutritional status than diarrhea (Pruss-Ustun, Annette and N.C. Corvalan (2006). Environmental Enteropathy can help explain why purely nutritional interventions have not been effective in improving stunting in contexts of overcrowding and poor WASH. There is strong evidence that improved WASH conditions are associated with a decrease in stunting (UNICEF, 2014). Children who suffer from stunted growth often grow into adults with physical limitations, high susceptibility to communicable and non-communicable diseases, and low cognitive capabilities that hinder employment opportunities (World Bank Group 2011).
The role of WASH, in particular, in improving nutritional outcomes has received greater attention in recent years. To reduce stunting, the recent Lancet series recommends WASH interventions as one of several interventions (Bhutta et al, 2013). Despite global momentum around this emerging evidence and high-level policy dialogue advocating for nutrition sensitive WASH, practical guidelines on how to work cross-sectorally are currently lacking.
- The purpose of the Consultancy
UNICEF wishes to engage the services of a consultant to support the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC adapt the East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO) Baby WASH package to Tanzanian context to guide programming and strengthen the linkages between WASH and nutrition geared towards improved sanitation coverage as well stunting reduction. The consultancy output will be a Baby WASH implementation package comprising a contextualized operational guide, training package, IEC materials and an accompanying final report.
This consultancy contributes to the UNICEF-GoT Country Program Strategic Plan 2016/2021, Outcome 3 and 4 and is in line with the UNDAP WASH and Nutrition Objective which highlights that Government of Tanzania and Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar implement a coordinated, scaled up national response for improved water, Sanitation and Hygiene and Nutrition. One of the four focus pillars of the nutrition component of the UNICEF Country Programme is to support stunting prevention through scaling-up optimal IYCF, WASH, ECD and Health practices using social and behaviour change communication. Stunting reduction is a national priority being addressed through a nationwide Accelerated Stunting Reduction Programme.
The consultant will be based in the UNICEF Tanzania Country Office Dar Es Salaam and will work closely with UNICEF National and Field Office colleagues, government partners, NGOs and communities while carrying out the assignment. The tasks will involve travelling to Mbeya, Iringa and Njombe Regions and Zanzibar and respective LGAs and communities for information gathering and all other necessary activities required for drafting, dissemination and finalization of the Baby WASH package.
- Deliverables and Timeframe (see full posting)
- Working Arrangements
The consultant will work under supervision of the UNICEF – WASH Specialist with support from the Chief – WASH and close collaboration with the focal Points at the MOHCDGEC.
- Intellectual Property Rights
MOHCDGEC and UNICEF Tanzania reserve the proprietary rights for the package produced through this consultancy.
- Payment Schedule (see full posting)
- Advanced University degree in Social Sciences, WASH C4D, Public health, Sanitation Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Community Development or related technical field.Qualifications and Experience of Consultant
- Prior Experience in developing guidelines and training materials
- Well-versed with the emerging evidence on the synergies between Nutrition and WASH in stunting reduction/prevention.
- Good communications, analytical and writing skills.
- Excellent presentation skills, both in terms of written and oral communication.
- Ability to work in a multi-cultural environment and stay in poor field conditions.
- Passion and commitment to UNICEF’s mission and professional values.
The work has to be completed within the set time frame. UNICEF will make the payment on satisfactory completion of the each of the outputs. UNICEF is committed todiversity and inclusion within its workforce, and encourages qualified female and male candidates from all national, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including persons living with disabilities, to apply to become a part of our organisation.
Opening Date Thu Jun 28 2018 08:00:00 GMT+0200 (Central European Summer Time) E. Africa Standard Time
Closing Date Sat Jul 07 2018 22:55:00 GMT+0200 (Central European Summer Time)