Consultant (Accelerating Sanitation and Water for All baseline data collection)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

South Sudan 🇸🇸

1. Background and Justification

In 2015, the UK Government committed to help at least 60 million people gain access to clean water and sanitation by 2020. To achieve the water supply and sanitation target, DFID supported Accelerating Sanitation and Water for All (ASWA) I programme from 2014 to 2017.

Accelerating Water and Sanitation for All (ASWA) II programme, which builds from the preceding ASWA I, started in 2018 and will continue until 2022. The overall goal of the programme is to help people gaining sustained access to basic, safe water supplies and basic sanitation across 10 target countries. The programme’s main focus will be sanitation and hygiene behaviour change, achieved by applying UNICEF’s successful Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) strategy. This multi-pronged approach is ultimately designed to achieve and sustain open defecation free (ODF) status across whole communities. Sanitation and hygiene promotion will also be reinforced with limited investments in safe water supplies and WASH in Schools and Healthcare facilities. District level activities will be backed up by UNICEF supporting the development of the WASH sector at national and/or sub-national levels. This high-level work will be tailored to suit national needs as well as UNICEF local capacity.

The ASWA II programme (2018-2022) seeks to establish sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services including;

  • 350,000 million people gain sustainable access to basic sanitation;
  • 55,000 people gain access to sustainable, basic and safe water supplies;
  • 50 schools and 25health care facilities have appropriate, effectively managed WASH facilities, with hygiene also being promoted;

Building on lesson learned from the ASWAI highlighting the need for strengthening outcome measurements, the ASWAII has a specific focus, among others, to conduct quality baseline data collection with harmonized survey methodology, data collection methods and tools across 10 programme countries.

2. Key objectives of the baseline survey

Key objectives of the baseline survey include;

1) collect data needed to inform the logframe indicators and establish a reference/baseline situation; data collected at midline and endline will be compared to this baseline situation in order to assess progress and results achieved through the programme; this will help UNICEF take appropriate measures for course correction, results will be periodically reported to the donor, and the assessment of progress and results will serve for evaluation purposes at the end of programme implementation

2) gain a better understanding of the initial situation in the beneficiary schools and healthcare facilities, precisely identify their needs and thus adapt and plan the necessary interventions. Data collected on the WASH situation in intervention villages, schools and health centres will indeed guide UNICEF in planning construction / rehabilitation works and supply distribution

3) establish a baseline situation for future sustainability checks

Further, specific objectives are;

  • To assess baseline conditions of households access to and use of sanitation, drinking water sources, and handwashing facilities with soap (i.e. outcome indicator 2, 3&4) at district- or equivalent administrative unit-level via household outcome survey;
  • To assess baseline conditions of sustained latrine use behaviour, Open Defecation Free (ODF) status (in existing ODF communities at the time of baseline survey) (i.e. outcome indicator 1) at community-level via ODF outcome survey;
  • To assess baseline conditions of WASH facilities (i.e. outcome indicator 6) and students hygiene awareness and practice in schools via School survey;
  • To assess baseline conditions of WASH facilities in healthcare facilities via healthcare facility survey;

Obtained data will be further used to improve data collection tools/modules for a midline and enline survey. Finally, the findings will inform and strengthen evidence-based ASWAII programming efforts.

The primary target audience of the baseline survey findings include the UNICEF Country Office (CO), Regional Office (RO) and Head Quarter (HQ), the Government, particularly relevant line ministries and selected provincial and district line agencies, and the DFID for baseline outcome reporting.

3. Scope of the work

The study will establish a coherent, quality baseline data for primarily outcome indicators as set out in Table 1.

Table 1. Outcome indicators 

4.1.1. Household outcome survey (Sanitation & Handwashing)

Objectives:

This household survey (sanitation & handwashing) aims for estimating district-level or target community-level representative in outcome indicator 2 (Proportion of people in intervention communities that use household toilets) & 3 (Proportion of people in intervention communities that practice handwashing with soap or an alternative hand washing agent such as ash, and water) at the baseline (i.e. prior to programme implementation).

Sampling approach:

Two-stage cluster sampling design will be applied, where first stage is selected randomly from communities targeted for intervention and second stage is a random sample of households within each community. The sample size should be designed to generate district-level representative estimates of each district with 90 per cent confidence interval with margin of error set at 10%. The bidder may want to use the following URL http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html for sample size calculation. Briefly, ‘margin of error set at 5%; confidence level set at 95%; response distribution set to 50%; population size set to the population number anticipated to benefit from the concerned programme component. Finally, community-level data collection with a separate community module will be conducted in 50% of communities.

Main indicators of interest and data collection methods:

Primary interests of indicators include access to functional sanitation and handwashing facility, and their usage by household members, along with other relevant WASH and Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) relating measurements. Observation of sanitation and handwashing facility will be conducted to measure access, functionality and the types of facilities, while household interview will capture self-reporting toilet usage. These indicators will be cross-tabulated by JMP toilet Category (of the household), Sex, Disability and Wealth ranking (of the household).

For community-level data collection, information around enabling environment factors such as presence of functional WASH committee, previous experiences with WASH programmes, and environmental factors such as soil conditions, risks of disasters and stable water access will be collected via Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as review of existing documents.

4.1.2. Household outcome survey (Water supply)

The household outcome survey (Water supply) aims for estimating target community-level representative in outcome indicator 4 (Proportion of people in intervention communities that use safe water from newly constructed or rehabilitated systems) at the baseline (i.e. prior to programme implementation). This indicator requires both household-level access to drinking water sources and water quality results of the source and household stored drinking water to define safe water.

4.1.2. (a) Household outcome survey (Water supply access)

Objectives:

This household survey (water supply) aims for estimating target community-level representative in outcome indicator 4 (Proportion of people in intervention communities that use household toilets) in particular household access to drinking water sources, its type and functionality.

Sampling approach:

Two-stage cluster sampling design will be applied, where first stage is selected randomly from communities targeted for water intervention and second stage is a random sample of households within each community. The sample size should be designed to generate target community-level representative with 90 per cent confidence interval with margin of error set at 10%. The bidder may want to use the following URL http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html for sample size calculation. Briefly, margin of error set at 5%; confidence level set at 95%; response distribution set to 50%; population size set to the population number anticipated to benefit from the concerned programme component. Finally, community-level data collection with a separate community module will be conducted in 50% of communities.

Main indicators of interest and data collection methods:

Primary interests of indicators include type, accessibility, and availability of the main drinking water source and their usage by household members, along with other relevant WASH relating measurements. Observation of drinking water source will be conducted to measure accessibility, functionality and the types of facilities, while household interview will capture self-reporting water source availability and household drinking water handling practice. These indicators will be cross-tabulated by JMP water supply Category (of the household), Sex, Disability and Wealth ranking (of the household). For community-level data collection, information around enabling environment factors such as presence of functional WASH committee, previous experiences with WASH programmes, and environmental factors such as soil conditions, risks of disasters and stable water access will be collected via Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as review of existing documents.

4.1.2. (b) Household outcome survey (Water quality testing)

Objectives:

Water quality testing aims for estimating water quality conditions in both drinking water sources and household stored drinking water collected from selected households in water intervention target communities at the baselined (i.e. prior to programme implementation).

Sampling approach:

A subset (10 “ 20%) of households sampled as part of 4.1.2. (a) Household outcome survey: Water supply access will be tested for water quality. Households will be asked to provide household stored drinking water for water quality testing. Further, they will be asked to specify their drinking water source of the household stored drinking water. Identified drinking water sources will be sampled for water quality testing as well.

Main indicators of interest and data collection methods:

Primary interests of indicators include feacal coliform indicator bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS or electric conductivity), iron, turbidity and other priority chemicals in consultation with UNICEF. If piped water is chlorinated, residual chlorine should be measured in these samples. Water samples need to be aseptically collected in field, and tested with appropriate quality control measures. These indicators will be cross-tabulated by JMP water supply Category (of the household), Sex, Disability and Wealth ranking (of the household).

4.2. ODF outcome survey

Objectives:

This ODF outcome survey aims for estimating baseline benchmark relating to outcome indicator 1 (Proportion of externally verified ODF communities attributed to DFID support that maintain their ODF status for at least one year). Given that there will be no ODF communities achieved through ASWAII programme yet at the baseline, the objectives include (1) to understand levels of slippage (proportion of households going back to open defecation within an ODF community) that will inform benchmark for estimating indicator 1 as programme evolves, (2) to identify community-level factors associated with sustaining ODF status to inform post-ODF programming, and (3) to test data collection tools, using existing ODF communities in or near sanitation target programme areas.

Sampling approach:

ODF communities will be randomly selected from a list of existing ODF communities in or near sanitation intervention communities, which may not be necessarily achieved with UNICEF support. The sample size will range from 6 to 10 ODF communities that are verified at least one year before the survey if possible. In selected ODF communities, the same community module used for household outcome survey with additional questions will be used for ODF community-level data collection, while all households within the selected ODF communities will be interviewed to capture potential equity issues (i.e. census).

Main indicators of interest and data collection methods:

Primary interests of indicators include access to functional sanitation and handwashing facility, and their usage by household members, along with other relevant WASH measurements. The same household survey data collection tool described in 4.1.1. Household outcome survey (Sanitation & Handwashing) with additional ODF specific questions will be used for household interview. Additionally, ODF outcome survey at community-level will be conducted through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) per ODF community to understand CLTS process, post-ODF mechanisms and challenges around ODF sustainability in these communities. Quantitative indicators will be cross-tabulated by JMP toilet Category (of the household), Sex, Disability and Wealth ranking (of the household).

4.3. School survey

Objectives:

This school survey aims for establishing a baseline condition of outcome indicator 6 (Proportion of intervention schools with students practicing handwashing with soap water after visiting the toilet at least 1 year after intervention).

Sampling approach:

All schools targeted for interventions will be sampled for school survey. Furthermore, 5th and 6th grade girls and boys will be interviewed in selected schools.

Main indicators of interest and data collection methods:

Primary interests of indicators include access to functional improved water supply, basic sanitation and handwashing facilities with soap, facilities that enable menstrual hygiene management (MHM) at school as well as student self-reporting hygiene practices. The data collection will be conducted through observation of WASH facilities in school and student interview (5thand 6 grade) for hygiene practice and menstrual hygiene management related measurements.

4.4. Healthcare facility survey

Objectives:

This healthcare facility survey aims for establishing a baseline condition of outcome indicator 7 (Proportion of intervention healthcare facilities with basic WASH facilities).

Sampling approach:

All healthcare facilities targeted for interventions will be sampled for healthcare facility survey. Furthermore, person in charge of Infection Prevention Control (IPC) or WASH facility maintenance will be interviewed in these healthcare facilities (one or two interviews per healthcare facility).

Main indicators of interest and data collection methods:

Primary interests of indicators include access to functional improved water supply, basic sanitation and handwashing facilities with soap at healthcare facilities. The data collection will be conducted through observation of WASH facilities in healthcare facilities. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) will be conducted to capture challenges around sustainability of WASH facilities (i.e. operation & maintenance).  

4.5. Overall data collection methodology

Use of mobile based applications and Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) data collection, entry, or similar, will be employed to increase data quality and reduce data processing time.

While the methodology and the data collection tools used by the survey institution will be provided by UNICEF, adjustments may need to be made after being tested, agreed upon and approved by UNICEF at the inception phase. Methodological rigor will be given significant consideration in the assessment of proposals. Hence bidders are invited to demonstrate methodological expertise in survey management.

4.6. Ethical consideration

For Ethics approval, please refer to the documents that can be downloaded, listed below:

Ethical guidelines for evaluations: http://www.unevaluation.org/document/download/548

Evaluators’ code of conduct: http://www.unicef.org/evaluation/files/Evaluation_Principles_UNEG_Code_of_Conduct.pdf

Procedure for Ethical Standards: https://unicef.sharepoint.com/teams/OoR/SiteAssets/SitePages/Procedures/

UNICEFPROCEDUREONETHICSINEVIDENCEGENERATION.PDF

Ethical research involving children:

http://childethics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/ERIC-compendium-approved-digital-web.pdf

In data collection, informed consent from all of the respondents and focus groups needs to be obtained. Data anonymization should be done before analysis.

Any sensitive issues or concerns should be raised with UNICEF as soon as they are identified.

5. Reporting

Inception report outlining survey methodology and work-plan with milestones

Draft final report on both quantitative and qualitative aspects with descriptive statistics including the full list of indicators to be populated – generic reporting template will be provided to a contractor

Soft copy of Raw data in English in Excel and SPSS format or agreed format (depending on feasibility after questionnaires have been designed)PPT, final report and 4-pager summary in English

6. Qualification and experience required

At minimum, the survey company should have assigned personnel to this assignment that meet the following qualifications:

  • Right mix of professionals with advanced university degrees (minimum Masters degree level) in disciplines relevant to the following areas: (1) Statistics, (2) Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation, (3) Public Health, (4) Civil and Environmental Engineering, (5) Geology, Hydrology, Sanitation Engineering, or a field relevant to international WASH related development assistance and social sciences.
  • At least five years of experience in conducting similar surveys particularly in the areas of water, sanitation and hygiene promotion, strong skills in statistics and data analysis. The senior personnel should have more than 10 years of progressive responsible professional work experience in all aspects of WASH programme management, and/or advisory support.
  • Experience in conducting qualitative surveys in the areas of water, sanitation and hygiene promotion, especially in rural areas.
  • Experience in coordinating and supervising field work of multipurpose, multi-country surveys.
  • High professional expertise in statistical and epidemiological analysis using latest version of statistical software/packages.
  • Good understanding of UNICEF and DFID WASH programme strategies, and other thematic areas such as such as health, education, protection.
  • Knowledge of Rights-based and Results-based approach and programming in UNICEF, and familiar with the East Asia, rural and project community contexts of water and sanitation, demographics and poverty issues.
  • Strong analytical skills with the ability to write in a clear and practical manner.
  • A team consisting of a project manager, field coordinator, a minimum number of enumerators and local data analysis experts so that the identified team should be able to respect the project timeline.

Additionally, the national survey consultants should possess following qualifications:

  • National survey companies that are credible and have a good track record in surveys and studies, and able to work access locations and data sources
  • Experience in use of mobile based applications/RTMs will be an asset
  • Experience in conducting qualitative surveys in the areas of water, sanitation and hygiene promotion, especially in rural areas

The contractor should provide a gender balanced and culturally diverse team of technical experts with expertise in quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection.


POSITION TYPE

ORGANIZATION TYPE

EXPERIENCE-LEVEL

DEGREE REQUIRED