Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) Review Consultant

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

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  1. Background

In Tanzania,  latrine coverage is high though much of it is composed of unimproved toilets (TDHS, 2015-16). This high coverage is largely believed to be due to the ‘Mtu ni Afya’ (Man is Health) campaign which promoted latrine building starting in 1973 through radio, listener groups, and other channels. The campaign prompted behavior change through empowerment and peer pressure, rather than the use of hardware subsidies.

Despite the high sanitation coverage, the 2015-16 TDHS reports a relatively high diarrhoea prevalence of 12% for children under five. Among these, children under 2 years are the most affected. The high prevalence indicates that people are living in a faecally-contaminated environment. The 2015-16 TDHS cites the following statistics: 10% of the population practice open defaecation; 55% use unimproved latrines; while only 19% are using improved latrines. Further, great disparities are observed between rural and urban groups; among wealth quantiles; and within/between regions and districts.

In Tanzania, a number of key efforts have been undertaken by the government to address sanitation and hygiene challenges in the country. They include; the ‘Mtu ni Afya’ Campaign carried out in 1970’s, the Health through Sanitation and Water (HESAWA) in the 1990’s to 2000’s and the implementation of the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) methodology in the mid-1990s to 2010. With exception to the Mtu ni Afya campaign, the subsequent interventions did not see great success in terms of moving households up the sanitation ladder.

More lately, Tanzania has been implementing the National Sanitation Campaign (NSC) under the umbrella of the National Water Sector Development Programme (WSDP). Phase I was launched by H.E Dr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete the Former President of United Republic of Tanzania in June, 2012. The actual implementation started in January, 2013 in 42 Local Government Authorities (LGAs). To date the implementation has been scaled up in 162 LGAs covering all the 25 Regions. Phase II is ongoing (2016-2021)

The objectives of WSDP through Phase I of the NSC (2012/13 – 2015/16) were two-fold, i). to promote household sanitation and hygiene with the target of reaching 1.52 million households with improved latrines and ii). to promote sanitation and hygiene in primary schools targeting 812 schools to receive a full school WASH (SWASH) package. The progress of implementation is encouraging in relation to Phase 1 targets where 1,660,550 and 1,029,404 households are reported to have improved toilets and hand washing facilities respectively. Of the 6,606 villages reached 267 have self-declared themselves to be ODF. Njombe and Meru Districts are reported to have the highest ODF villages (46 and 42 respectively) followed by Makete (31).

Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) was adopted by the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MOHCDGEC) as the approach for Sanitation promotion in the country guided by the national guideline for Rural Community led Total Sanitation 2012 revised in 2016 and a new guide for urban CLTS developed in 2016. CLTS has been scaled up nationally and is being implemented in all Regions on the mainland and Zanzibar and the approach is contributing significant increase in access to improved sanitation facilities especially in rural areas. UNICEF is one of the key partners supporting the National Sanitation Campaign both at the national and sub-national levels.  A number of achievements have been made since the inception of CLTS implementation in the country. Local government Authorities and development partners have introduced several innovations centered on Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) adapted to local contexts and experiences in line with the core principles of CLTS and are supporting the on-going scaling up efforts of the approach. There is presently no effective mechanism for collecting and disseminating all these innovations and experiences in a systematic manner that could be shared with all relevant stakeholders. Sharing of experiences and innovations is very critical to the overall success of CATS approach in the country where efforts are being made to encourage all the Regions to adopt the approach for sanitation development.

But perhaps more important is the methodology being used in the name of CLTS. The sequencing of events can influence the effectiveness of triggering and of overall uptake. There are many ways that CLTS is implemented and there has not been a review of the approach adopted in Tanzania. Such a review and resulting adjustments if any would enhance the effectiveness of the approach adopted. A second issue is the high proportion of the population using unimproved toilets. It is questionable whether CLTS is an effective methodology for this population group in activating action to move up the sanitation ladder. For these reasons, there is  need to carry out a systematic review of CLTS/CATS as implemented in Tanzania with active participation of all stakeholders. UNICEF therefore seeks a consultant to undertake the review to inform CLTS/CATS programming in Tanzania.

  1. Purpose

The main purpose of this consultancy is to review CLTS/CATS implementation in Tanzania (with particular focus on UNICEF supported Regions) to obtain evidence on what is working well and what has not worked too well. Central to this review will be a consideration of methods adopted to stop populations practicing open defecation and those adopted to move populations up the sanitation ladder from unimproved to improved toilets. The review recommendations will contribute to informing future programming to accelerate sanitation coverage in the country towards achieving SDGs. The consultancy will require significant analytical inputs to identify and recommend a blended package of methodologies to accelerate sanitation coverage with quality. This will in turn also require documenting successful approaches/processes, innovations, best practices, lessons learned and challenges and failures from the field. Above all, the consultancy should provide an analytical report with incisive guidance on the way forward for CLTS in Tanzania and outline alternative approaches as necessary.

  1. Scope

The consultant will be based in UNICEF Tanzania Country Office Dar Es Salaam and will work closely with UNICEF National and Field Office colleagues, government partners, NGOs and communities while carrying out the assignment. The tasks will involve extensive travel to UNICEF focus areas in Mbeya, Iringa and Njombe regions and Zanzibar to interact with LGAs and Communities for information gathering and all other necessary activities required for the review process.


  1. Working Arrangements

The consultant will work under supervision of the UNICEF – WASH Specialist with support from the Chief – WASH and close collaboration with the focal Points at the MOHCDGEC. The full scope of the review will be agreed with UNICEF within two days of starting the assignment.

  1. Intellectual Property Rights

UNICEF Tanzania reserves the proprietary rights for the products produced through this consultancy.

  1. Time Frame: The expected time frame for the assignment is 3 month
  2. Conditions
  3. Qualifications and Experience of Consultant
  • Advanced University degree in Mass Communication, Social Sciences, Public health, Sanitation Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Community Development or related technical field.
  • A minimum of eight years of relevant experience in writing technical manuals or documents, journals/newsletter and media communication.
  • Excellent communications, analytical and writing skills.
  • Excellent presentation skills, both in terms of written and oral communication.
  • Ability to work in difficult field conditions.
  •       Passion and commitment to UNICEF’s mission and professional values.