Mozambique’s natural resources and environment are the main sources of peoples’ livelihoods and are the backbone of the country’s main productive sectors: agriculture, fisheries, energy, and increasingly also tourism and mining. This linkage between environment, livelihoods and development has been recognized by the Government, by including as one of the five priorities into the current 5-years national development programme – Programa Quinquenal do Governo(PQG): Priority 5: “Ensure sustainable and transparent management of natural and environmental resources”. Also, the Government of Mozambique, jointly with the UNDP and UN Environment, has developed a programme to support further integration of environment and natural resources sustainability into the national, local and sector planning and budgeting processes, the so-called “Sustainable management of Natural resources for Resilient and Equitable growth and Development (SUNRED) Project in Mozambique”.
Government institutions have an important role to play in environmental and natural resources (ENR) management in Mozambique, therefore natural resources and environment-related public revenues and expenditures and their effective management are key aspects to be analyzed to properly inform and promote improvements of related policies, strategies and programmes and planning processes. Transparent and effective management of ENR revenues and expenditures therefore is part of efforts of the Government of Mozambique and its development partners in strengthening the public financial management.
Combined with the fact that institutional responsibilities for ENR management and enforcement lie with a wide array of institutions, analysis of ENR revenues and expenditures within these institutions is important for providing the analysis necessary to better align ENR revenues and expenditures with national priorities and development goals.
At the international level, Government institutions have an important role to play in environmental management in Mozambique, therefore public revenues and expenditures and their effective management are key aspects of implementing national environmental commitments, priorities and enforcement of legislation.strengthening of environmental mainstreaming in national budgetary processes is increasingly being recognized as a component of general budget support and the inclusion of environmental issues in Public Expenditure Reviews (PERs) is becoming a wider practice across countries.
At the national level, the first public environmental expenditure review for Mozambique was carried out as a country case study of a bigger study entitled “Environmental Institutions, Public Spending and the Role for Development Partners”, covering the period 2005-2007 and carried out by the Overseas Development Institute. This study was supplemented by a MICOA (at that time, the Ministry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs) study covering the same period and predominantly focusing on expenditures of MICOA and its subordinated institutions. The Environment sector reports as part of Joint Review processes for 2007 and 2008 included also the analysis of budget execution for the review period, focusing on MICOA and its subordinated institutions.
It is expected that gradually the annual review processes should aim for more cross-sectoral analysis of ENR revenues, budget allocations and expenditures.
In 2012, a Public Environmental Expenditure Review PEER (2007-2010) was conducted by the MICOA and currently, the MITADER (Ministry of Environment, Land and Rural Development), in close coordination with the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), is about to start a second PEER for the period 2010-2017.
These TORs cover preparation of the second Public Environmental and Natural Resources Expenditure Review (PEER) which will build on the above studies and cover the period of 2010-2017. The 2nd-PEER will analyse the environmental expenditures and revenues within MITADER and subordinated institutions as well as within other key sectors relevant to the “environment and natural resources” in broader terms. It will also revisit and supplement the findings and conclusions contained in previous reviews. It is expected that the 2nd PEER will benefit from improved availability of information at programmatic level, and it is expected to provide support to capacity building for relevant national institutions to carry out PEERs on regular basis in the near future, as a tool to influence budgetary allocations for ENR management.
While the MITADER (Ministry for Land, Environment and Rural Development) is tasked with overall coordination of environmental management, other sectors, such as agriculture, energy or mining play a significant role in implementation and monitoring of ENR management activities.
Council Conclusions on integrating environment in development cooperation, Council meeting Luxembourg, 25 June 2009
Análise de Execução Orçamental Pública em Questões Ambientais 2005-2007 (MICOA, Março 2008)
Revisão Conjunta 2007 (Ambiente (2008)), and Revisão Conjunta 2008 (Ambiente (2009))
Duties and Responsibilities
Key concepts and stakeholders: Prepare and discuss with the key stakeholders:
- Definition of “Public Environmental and Natural Resources Expenditure” and of “Environmental and Natural Resources Revenue” (or revenues generated by activities related to environmental and natural resources management) applicable to Mozambique;
- List of sectors, programmes and public institutions relevant to ENR management, their ENR management functions and role to play for the integration of environmental and natural resources sustainability into planning and budget processes with the aim of contributing towards current PQG priority 5, poverty reduction and other development goals, including and analysis and linkages with SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals);
- A “checklist” of ENR expenditures and revenues by each institution / management function identified (e.g: analysis, research, monitoring, investment in facilities, policy design, enforcement) to analyse the structure of the state budget / how does the current structure allow or do not allow to identify environmental expenditures and revenues, on basis of the analysis, propose improvements.
Expenditure Review: Prepare an overview of revenue, allocations and expenditure (on annual basis, for the years 2010-2017, both on and off budget) and trends – from all sources (domestic revenue and external funds) for ENR management (as per agreed definition of public ENR expenditure) and if feasible – per types of activities/functions (such as analysis, research, monitoring, investment in facilities, policy design and enforcement). As specific functional budget codes for climate change were introduced in 2014, this will need a specific analysis.
Compare the allocations for different areas of ENR management and compare how that responds to poverty reduction and environmental priorities as defined in PQG, and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy currently in place in Mozambique.
Compare the allocations for ENR management with other government allocations: does the share of the expenditure on environment match its priority as a public policy issue?
Analyse the effectiveness of expenditure allocation, disbursement and execution (on annual basis) and how that responds to planned priorities within ENR sectors.
Analyse the sources of funding for the environment sector; examine, as far as possible, government revenue and any general budget support, revenue generated by activities related to ENR management and external funding to ENR activities. Assess the sustainability of the ENR management budgets.
Outline reasons for any differences between approved budgets vs actual disbursements and expenditures.
Explain progress and implications in linkage to policy objectives.
Provide a commentary on the progress and trends of government revenues from and spending on ENR management.
Geographical distribution: Analyse the geographic distribution of aggregated and specific environmental expenditures (comparative analyses of the 10 provinces) and how that match the geographic distribution of poverty and geographic distribution of environmental needs in Mozambique.
Revenue sharing: Review and assess the contribution of the ENR resources to national revenues during the study period and their utilisation;
Assess the contribution to central, sectoral and provincial revenues from ENR resources (e.g. mining, fisheries, forestry, wildlife, tourism, ENR licences, etc.) and comment on degree of contribution to district revenues;
Assess the contribution to local level revenues, for example revenues to communities within the framework of the Forest and Wildlife Law;
Institutional analyses: Assess what progress has been made by the GoM in terms of improved ENR management, sector coordination, and implementation of recommendations as compared to previous PEER, as well as what have been the main strengths and weaknesses in the period under analysis. Explore the impact of the political-economy context and changes made into the Governmental structure when discussing the institutional set-up.
Challenges and recommendations: Assess what are the main challenges in relation to ENR expenditures and provide recommendations, among others:
Identify implications of the Government decentralization plans for ENR sector. Analyse what are the current trends towards decentralisation of funds, with a focus on decentralization of funds for environmental management. Evaluate current allocation mechanisms and formulas for decentralised expenditures (including mechanisms and formulas specifically for ENR expenditures – if such exist), evaluate how that responds to current PQG priority 5 and other ENR priorities and expenditure needs and provide suggestions on how this could be improved using available data.
On basis of the work carried out under the current assignment, assess how feasible currently it is to identify ENR expenditures outside MITADER system and recommend how to improve it, for example, by improving the coding system used within SISTAFE.
Present challenges and recommendations in relation to SDG financial reporting on environmental sustainability; current alignment with the Agenda 2030 and the SDGs and potential improvement to facilitate this reporting process.
Capacity building: Propose elements for capacity building programme for continuous integration of ENR sustainability in the national planning, budgeting, and M&E cycles.
Organize and hold an introductory 3-day training on PEER methodology (process, tools, objectives, expected results, challenges, examples from other countries, similar reviews (such as CPEIR, BER), etc.). Target beneficiaries are the government staff focusing on the MITADER, Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) and the key sectors such as MASA, MIREME, etc.
In support to that training, the Consultant(s) will prepare a user-friendly training and operational manual (including tools, such as checklists, formats, tables, etc.) that will guide governmental staff to conduct future PEER.
Presentation of results: Make the required presentations of the draft and final reports, including a public launch of the report at the end of the assignment.
It is to be emphasized that the above should be forward looking with the aim to produce practical recommendations for the relevant government institutions in order to:
- raise the profile of ENR as a core asset for achievement of key development goals such as poverty reduction, and also for implementation of Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development and related SDGs,
- promote equity, efficiency and effectiveness of public spending for pro-poor growth,
- increase the share of the national budget at central, provincial and district levels and across sectors in order to reach the national development and poverty reduction targets and to rationalize public expenditure for ENR management;
The Expert(s) is expected to have core competencies:
- Promoting Ethics and Integrity/Creating Organizational Precedents;
- Building and promoting effective civil society capacity building;
- Fair and transparent language;
- Demonstrates integrity by modelling the UN’s values and ethical standards;
- Displays cultural, gender, religion, race, nationality and age sensitivity and adaptability
- Treats all people fairly without favoritism
- Fulfils all obligations to gender sensitivity and zero tolerance for sexual harassment.
Additionally, he/she is expected to have functional competencies:
Contributing to positive outcomes for the national multisector response in a client based approach that:
- Support the development of Data-base of information;
- Works towards creating an enabling environment for a smooth relationship between the clients and service provider;
- Demonstrates understanding of client’s perspective;
- Keeps the client informed of problems or delays in the provision of services;
- Uses discretion and flexibility in interpreting rules in order to meet client needs and achieve organizational goals more effectively;
- Solicits feedback on service provision and quality.Strong interpersonal and written and oral communication skills;
- Ability to work well in multi-disciplinary teams.
Required Skills and Experience
Masters degree in a relevant field such as Economics, Development Economics, etc. from a recognized University;
- Minimum of ten (10) years work experience in related fields such as Poverty Reduction Strategies, policies, budgetary and PER processes and review, proven record in informing and influencing such processes. The team leader is expected to have experience in having participated in public environmental expenditure review processes.
- Minimum 3 – 5 years experience in understanding of cross sectoral character of environmental activities and expenditures, preferably in Sub-Saharian Africa context and/or in context of other developing countries
- Minimum 3 – 5 years experience in organize and facilitate workshops and meetings and to prepare training programmes; excellent oral and written communication;
Fluent in English and Portuguese.