Act Change Transform (Act!) is a non-governmental organization working in the field of Capacity Development and Grants Management. Act Change Transform (Act!) is implementing the Peace, Security and Stability (PSS) Development Engagement funded by the Royal Danish Embassy and seeks to address violent extremism, natural resource and political conflicts in select Counties in Kenya. Act! together with its implementing partners has contributed to the country’s results in peace building and conflict transformation, democracy and human rights, livelihoods and environment and natural resource management.
In the recent past, Laikipia, Isiolo and Samburu Counties have been in the limelight due to resource based conflicts manifesting itself as cattle rustling, ethnic clashes, banditry, private land encroachment and political contestations along ethnic lines. These escalated further into an ethnocentric political conflict which caused a tripartite antagonism between the communities themselves, communities and ranchers and even within the political class in the affected Counties. The dwindling grazing resources, political incitements and a clash of livelihoods i.e. nomadism and crop farming and establishment of wildlife conservancies and the fencing off of huge swathes of grazing lands are some of the root causes of the recent skirmishes that continue to raise its ugly head intermittently.
The pastoralists and agro-pastoralist communities living in the Amaiya triangle that straddles Laikipia, Samburu and Baringo Counties, have borne the brunt of these incessant conflicts. The government has responded to the escalating conflicts by deploying security forces on the ground to address the situation.
On the other hand, dependency on the Ewaso-Nyiro River Basin has also contributed to the conflict. Local and foreign conservation groups opine that Kenya’s third largest river is grappling with profound ecological challenges, which threatens the survival of an estimated 1.5 million people in seven arid and semi-arid Counties which include Isiolo, Laikipia and Samburu. Conservationists have warned that tributaries that drain into Ewaso Nyiro River are drying up at unprecedented rate due to intensive water abstraction by horticulture farms located in the upstream.
Act! through the DANIDA funded Peace, Security and Stability program intends to undertake an assessment of the current and changing dynamics of conflicts in Laikipia, Isiolo and Samburu Counties. Act! will thereafter consolidate findings from other conflict mapping exercises that have been carried out in the past in order to validate and update the existing knowledge in the realm of resource based conflicts in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) in Kenya. This will also help Act!, as well as peace building platforms such as Uwiano Platform for Peace, generate new knowledge and strategies for preventing, managing and transforming resource based conflicts in the country and beyond
2.0 Objectives of the study
The main objective (purpose) of this study is to investigate the changing dynamics of natural resource based conflicts in Isiolo, Laikipia and Samburu Counties in order to generate new strategies for preventing, managing and transforming the conflicts. The following are the specific objectives:
- Undertake a review of recent conflict studies to generate secondary data and knowledge gaps related to natural resource and political related conflicts in Isiolo, Laikipia and Samburu counties
- Establish the emerging dynamic, trends and drivers of natural resource based conflicts in the three Counties
- Assess the role of the key stakeholders, including National and County governments in managing and transforming natural resource based conflicts in the three Counties.
- Document any key lesson(s) learned in addressing natural resource based conflicts in the three Counties being studied
- Generate strategies and recommendations for addressing natural resource based conflicts in the three Counties, clearly articulating what the communities, County, National Governments and Development Partners can do to address the situation.
3.0 Proposed Approach
The approach will involve among others literature review, field visits/research and a validation workshop.
The detailed approach will be as follows:
a) Desk review: The consultant will undertake a literature review of the recent secondary data in the realm of natural resource based conflicts in Kenya and beyond. Any gaps identified especially regarding natural resource conflicts will inform field research.
b) Field Research: The consultant will suggest a representative sample based on an agreed criterion and will collect data using a variety of methods including questionnaires, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, observation and photography among others. The data will be collected from Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies, CSOs, community leaders, ranch owners, pastoralists, conservancy owners, small scale and large scale farmers, religious institutions, business leaders, women among others.
c) Validation workshop: The consultant will produce a report that will be presented to stakeholders in a validation meeting and the feedback used to finalize the reports.
4.0 Reporting and Supervision
The consultant will work under the overall supervision of the PBCT Program Coordinator and with support from the Monitoring and Evaluation Manager and the Peace Building and Conflict Transformation Program Manager.
The deliverables will be assessed against the provisions of this scope of work set for the assignment. In synopsis, the following are the key deliverables:
a) Inception report: Clearly describing the study design, sampling techniques, data analysis and a work plan for achieving the same. Preliminary secondary data, highlighting the main knowledge gaps, will form a key component of the inception report.
b) Draft Conflict Assessment Report: This report, between 30 to 40 pages, will have detailed information analysing the changing dynamics of conflicts in the aforementioned Counties, its drivers and strategies for addressing the conflicts. This report will be reviewed by Act! staff and subjected to stakeholder review during a validation workshop.
c) Final Conflict Assessment Report: A final report of not more than 40 pages incorporating comments from both the Act! reviewers and the validation workshop will be submitted to Act!
6.0 Duration of the Assignment
This task will be carried out over a period of 45 consultancy days.
7.0 Selection Procedure
Qualified consultants are requested to submit their expression of interest elaborating the methodology and indicating the fees. The proposal should be submitted electronically to [email protected] quoting the reference number ACT-CM-05-2018 and title on the e-mail subject headline.
The deadline for submission of applications is 11th February 2018 at 5:00pm East African Time.
Note: All materials to be developed under this assignment are property of DANIDA & Act! and may not be cited or reproduced under any circumstances
Act! is an equal opportunity employer with zero tolerance to corruption.