TERMS OF REFERENCE For A Consultancy to Assess The Effects of Gender, Age and Ability on Climate Change Adaptation Capacity in Kenya’s Eastern Marginal Farmer Zone
Trócaire is an Irish development agency that was established in 1973 by the Catholic Bishops of Ireland. Trócaire works in over 20 countries in partnership with local civil society organizations implementing both long-term development and emergency response programmes. Trócaire has been working in Kenya for over 30 years and established its Nairobi office in 1994. Working with over twenty five local partner organisations, Trócaire focuses on Resilient Livelihoods and Natural Resource Rights (RRR); Democratic and Accountable Governance (DAG), Women’s Empowerment (WE). Trócaire works towards the achievement of “a just and peaceful Kenya in which impoverished women, youth and other vulnerable groups realise their rights and improve their quality of life in dignity and safety” (Country Strategic Plan 2017-2021). Our country programme is built on an ecological model that integrates a change process based on micro, meso and macro level engagements with strong partnerships, a commitment to capacity building, clear advocacy priorities, high levels of financial oversight and holistic programme design to bring about social change.
Trócaire works at 3 levels across all programmes: Micro: Communities (especially women and youth within those communities) are empowered to be more ‘resilient’ to hazards, shocks and conflict i.e. are able to identify problems, come up with solutions, plan to address their problems and carry out those plans so that the rights of all are protected; Meso: Civil society is vibrant and promotes citizens’ concerns and rights while county level government is more accountable and managing an equitable devolved governance system – responsive to citizen’s needs; and Macro: Government is influenced to be more accountable, equitable and responsive to citizen’s needs.
2. Brief Overview of the Programme
Trócaire’s Resilient Livelihoods and Natural Resource Rights programme (RRR) aims to support communities that are vulnerable to drought, conflict and climate change to become resilient by developing abundant , ecologically sustainable livelihoods. The programme focuses on communities living in Kenya’s Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) which cover 80% of the country and which are afflicted by serious, recurrent droughts. The programme takes an integrated approach to addressing the root causes of vulnerability whilst also supporting the capacity of communities to prepare and respond to disasters, while also delivering humanitarian responses to disaster affected communities. The programme also aims to integrate women’s empowerment and gender equity as core approaches within the programme
3. Brief Overview of the Project
Trocaire is currently managing the implementation of a 3-year resilience building project in Eastern Kenya with funding from UK Aid Match (UKAM). Implemented through local partner organisations (Diocese of Meru and Kitui, Parish of Ishiara), this project targets the most marginalised communities of the semi-arid lands of Kitui (Ngomeni and Nguni Wards), Tharaka-Nithi (Igamba-ng’ombe and Gatunga Wards) and Embu Counties (Evurore Ward).
The project has the following goals, outcomes and indicators:
Project Impact Goal:
Vulnerable communities in three drought-affected semi-arid Counties in Eastern Kenya are more resilient to the impact of shocks and stresses related to climate change.
Impact Indicator. 1: HH Economic Security
Proportion of targeted FHHs and MHHs that are able meet their basic needs during the lean season
Impact Indicator. 2: HH Food Security
Proportion of target FHHs and MHHs that are food secure at the end of the long dry season
Impact Indicator. 3: Capacity to Cope with Shocks
Mean Coping Strategy Index (CSI) score across targeted FHHs and MHHs
Outcome 1: Economic Security
Vulnerable female and male headed households in three drought affected semi-arid Counties have improved levels of economic security
Outcome Indic. 1.1 Income Diversity
Proportion of targeted FHHs and MHHs with more than two sources of income
Outcome Indicator 1.2 Assets
Total Mean value of HH Assets held by targeted FHH and MHH
Outcome Indic. 1.3 Savings and Loans
Total value of Cash Savings held and Loans issued by SILC Groups established by the project
Outcome 2: Food Security
Vulnerable female and male headed households in three drought affected semi-arid Counties have improved levels of food security
Outcome Indic. 2.1 Food Access
Average diversity and frequency of food consumption per target FHH and MHH
Outcome Indic. 2.2 Food Availability – Diversity
Diversity of crops and livestock produced by target FHH and MHH
Outcome Indic. 2.3 Food Availability – Quantity
Quantity of agricultural goods produced per target FHH and MHH
Outcome 3: Natural Resource Management
Communities in three drought-affected semi-arid Counties have improved capacity to protect and manage natural resources in a climate sensitive manner.
Outcome Indic. 3.1 Collective Action on NRM
Number of community NRM groups established and implementing collective strategies to manage at least two common natural resources
Outcome Indic. 3.2 Government Policy
Number of concrete actions taken by County and National government to adopt policy recommendations proposed by partners and community groups on climate-sensitive NRM, including Integrated Water Resource Management
Outcome 4: CMDRR
Vulnerable communities in three drought-affected semi-arid Counties have improved capacity to plan for, respond to and cope with shocks and stresses related to climate change.
Outcome Indic. 4.1 CMDRR Groups
Number of CMDRR groups developing and implementing CMDRR and contingency plans in a timely, appropriate and effective manner
Outcome Indic. 4.2 County Budgets
County budgets reflect the priorities of CMDRR groups and partners
4. Purpose of the Assignment
Trocaire understands that the risks posed by drought and conflict in ASAL areas of Kenya are deeply related to climate change. Climate change is rapidly increasing the exposure of ASAL communities to the risk of drought and is also contributing to the degradation of natural resource, particularly water, forest and soil. Trocaire also understands that the effects of climate change, drought and conflict on local livelihoods are forcing vulnerable individuals, households, communities and groups to engage in negative coping strategies that have only serve to exacerbate the negative impacts of climate change (e.g. deforestation, charcoal making, sand harvesting etc.). Finally, Trocaire acknowledges that the impact of climate change on lives and livelihoods differs significantly along lines of gender, age, and ability, with different individuals, households and groups being affected in different ways depending upon their status. As such, Trocaire seeks to ensure that all of our resilient livelihoods work is delivered in a manner that is sensitive to differences in gender, age and ability.
In order to effectively respond to the varied vulnerabilities of individuals, a households and groups, Trocaire requires a detailed analysis of the way that climate change, drought and natural resource degradation are affecting different groups in the areas targeted by the UKAM project. Trocaire is therefore seeking the services of a highly qualified consultant to carry out a study of the ways that different people are affected by these issues, along the lines of gender, age and ability in the target areas.
This study will analyse the different roles played by women and men, girls and boys, disabled and elderly persons in the target areas, particularly as they relate to livelihood activities that may be/are being affected by climate change. It will examine the gaps and challenges faced by women and men, girls and boys, disabled and elderly persons in the target areas and will make recommendations programming that are sensitive to the gender, age and ability. This exercise is vital in identifying the opportunities through which Trocaire and its partners can support the men and women in building resilience and climate adaptation. This is expected to strengthen both men’s’ and women’s’ roles in sustainable agriculture and climate change adaptation.
5. Objectives of the Assignment
The main objective of this assignment is to evaluate the different ways in which women and men, girls and boys, disabled and elderly persons are differently affected by climate change, drought and environmental degradation in the target areas of Kitui, Tharaka Nithi and Embu and to provide specific recommendations for how Trocaire and our partners can address those differences positively in the UKAM project in a manner that promotes gender equity and resilience.
The specific objectives of the assignment include:
Identify and analyse the distinct and common economic, social and environmental roles/responsibilities of men and women, girls and boys, elderly and disabled persons in target areas of Kitui, Tharaka and Embu counties, taking into account the specific issues faced by single mothers, single fathers, widows, young mothers and orphans
Identify and analyse the specific challenges faced by women and men, girls and boys, disabled and elderly persons that relate specifically to climate change, drought and natural resource degradation, especially those that relate to livelihoods and natural resource management
In light of those different challenges, assess the design of the UKAM project and the implementation approaches being used by the partners in the UKAM project and evaluate how effectively they:
a. Take into account the actual challenges faced by women, men, girls, boys, disabled and elderly persons
b. Promote equity along the lines of gender, age and ability
c. Actively empower women and girls
d. Address any relevant issues of protection and safeguarding
Identify gaps and opportunities for improvement in the project design and implementation approaches of the UKAM project partners.
Make practical and cost-effective recommendations to improve the design and implementation of the UKAM project to promote equity along lines of gender, age and ability.
6. Assignment Methodology
The study will be conducted in a select number of communities in the Counties of Kitui (Ngomeni and Nguni Wards), Tharaka-Nithi (Igamba-ng’ombe and Gatunga Wards) and Embu Counties (Evurore Ward). The study will focus on the collection of qualitative data on the different experiences and challenges faced by women and men, girls and boys, disabled and elderly persons. The data collection should use a participatory approach and should focus on providing an in-depth analysis of the power relations that structure different outcomes for people along the lines of gender, age, ability and social status.
The study research will include the following:
Analysis of secondary documentation: The consultant(s) will collect and analyse all secondary data that is relevant to the subject of the study. These will include, but are not restricted to: Project documents of Trócaire and partners (proposal, logframe, budget, previous situation reports etc.); Relevant documents published by County or National government Ministries (policies, laws, County Integrated Development Plans, research reports etc.); Relevant documents published by national or international NGOs or research institutions.
Field Collection of Qualitative Data: The consultant(s) will be required to collect qualitative data on a range of indicators using participatory approaches that are consistent with a Gender, Age and Diversity approach (GAD). In particular they will be expected to conduct: in-depth Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Key Informant Interviews KIIs), and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) surveys. FGDs should be disaggregated along lines of gender, age, ability and social status. The consultant(s) should be highly experienced in the implementation of qualitative data collection on issues relating to gender, age and diversity as they relate to livelihoods, preferably using participatory and ethnographic data collection methods that focus on gender-power relations.
All data, must be disaggregated by location, age, sex, ability and social status; that is, separately for girls and boys, men and women, disabled and elderly persons, single parents, widows, grandparents and orphans.
The consultant(s) may also consider the use of quantitative data collection methods if appropriate. In this case the consultant(s) must provide a clear rationale for such data collection and a detailed data collection protocol. They should be experienced and skilled in the design and implementation of qualitative data collection and analysis techniques that relate specifically to the effects of gender, age and diversity on and livelihoods, with a particular focus on industry standard measurements of food security and sustainable livelihoods along lines of gender, age and ability e.g. Household Food Insecurity Access Score (HFIAS), Food Consumption Score (FCS), assessment of levels of assets and savings at household level.
Analysis of Data: The study must provide a detailed assessment of the different ways in which issues relating to gender, age, ability and social status structure the vulnerability of individuals and households to the risks posed by climate change, drought and natural resource degradation in the different study sites. This means that in addition to a presentation of the data collected from the study sites, the consultant(s) must provide a detailed analysis of the factors structuring power relations around gender, age, ability and social status, together with a detailed analysis of how those factors have an impact on the livelihoods of different social groups (women, men, girls, boys, disabled, elderly, single parents, widows etc.).
7. Assignment Tasks
The consultant(s) will be expected to complete the following tasks:
Participate in briefing and consultation meetings to discuss the assignment, become familiar with Trócaire’s Resilience programme and the UKAM project and to collaborate with project staff on the development of the study design and implementation plan.
Develop, in collaboration with Trócaire and partners, a detailed research and analysis plan, including plans for: pretesting of tools; recruitment and training of research assistants; meaningful participation of partners and community; sampling methodology; implementation of data collection in the field; data analysis and reporting.
Develop, in collaboration with Trócaire and partners, rigorous and robust, data collection tools that can gather reliable data on the key research questions e.g. GD and KII discussion guides, questionnaires etc. (Sample tools to be developed, shared and approved by Trócaire prior to data collection). Develop research protocols describing the data collection methodologies used.
Lead data collection in the field including: designing and leading key informant interviews and focus group discussions; designing and leading surveys; identifying and training research assistants/enumerators; monitoring and ensuring data quality and research ethics of research assistants.
Analyse data in a rigorous, robust manner using appropriate statistical and qualitative analysis techniques (e.g. Nvivo)
Draft a high-quality study report. The report must be written in good quality English and must include robust and detailed analysis of the data findings.
Identify challenges/weaknesses with UKAM project’s design and implementation approaches and present recommendations for how the implementation of the project can be improved to take gender, age, ability and social status effectively into account
8. Assignment Outputs
The consultant(s) are expected to deliver the following outputs:
Task / Output
Conduct inception meeting(s) with Trocaire project staff
Collate and review key background documents
Produce a detailed inception report including: detailed work plan, detailed research methodology and sampling approach for data collection, data collection tools (to be finalised in agreement with the Trocaire project team)
Recruitment and training of enumerators/research assistants, ensuring all enumerators sign and abide by Trócaire’s Safeguarding Children Policy
Manage implementation of field data collection
Data entry and analysis
Produce draft study report, submitted for comments to Trócaire. Report should include:
· Executive summary covering:
Overview of the objectives of the assignment
Brief summary of the findings
· Introduction (chapter 1). Back ground to the assignment; Context analysis; Objectives, study questions and significance of the study
· Methodology and materials (chapter 2). Overview of the data collection methods used; methods/procedures for data analysis and materials/equipment used.
· Findings and discussions (chapter 3): Detailed presentation of research results and detailed analysis in light of the research questions
· Conclusions and recommendations. (chapter 4)
· Appendices: Charts, terms of reference, timetable, photos, syllabus, action plan, participants list disaggregated by gender.
Trócaire staff comment on first draft
Produce final baseline study, responding to the comments received
Provision of all raw data (quantitative data files, notes from all focus group meetings/key informant interviews etc.) to Trocaire
Oral presentation / meeting and de-brief with project staff
The consultancy should be completed by the end of August 2017. The exact period of the consultancy will be finalised with the consultant prior to the finalisation of the contract, but should not exceed 25 working days in total
The budget for the study should not exceed USD 15,000 and should include all relevant costs (professional fees, travel, accommodation, training etc.)
11. Consultant Profile
Trócaire Kenya seeks to engage the services of a highly qualified and experienced consultant(s) to implement this study. The consultant(s) must have the following qualifications and experience:
· The lead consultant(s) must be qualified to at least a Master’s degree level, with demonstrated technical expertise on gender and livelihoods within poor, vulnerable communities, preferably in the ASAL areas of Kenya. Preference will be shown to applicants with demonstrated understanding and experience of how to conduct anthropological or political-economic research on poverty and vulnerability using the lenses of Gender, Age and Diversity (GAD) and the empowerment and protection of women and girls.
· The lead consultant(s) must have demonstrated experience of and expertise in designing and managing similar research studies and in delivering agreed outputs on time and within budget.
· Other team members should have a minimum qualification of a Bachelor’s degree in Social Sciences with detailed knowledge and understanding of the structural drivers that directly and indirectly vulnerability to drought and conflict in the Kenyan ASALs, in particular gender.
· All team members must have demonstrated experience of and expertise in implementing research projects using rigorous data collection methodologies, especially qualitative and participatory methodologies
· Demonstrated experience of and expertise in implementing research studies on gendered issues relating to food security, sustainable livelihoods, natural resource management and disaster risk reduction in ASALs, preferably with experience in Eastern Kenya
· Demonstrated understanding of protection and other ethical issues related to implementing such research
· Excellent, demonstrated skills in quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis; demonstrated experience in using qualitative and/or statistical analysis software (Nvivo, SPSS or similar)
· Demonstrated ability to write high quality, clear, concise reports in English
· Ability to work with communities in relevant local languages (Kikamba, Kimbeere) will be an advantage
· Experience in designing, managing, monitoring and evaluating related projects or programmes with international NGOs or government Ministries in ASALs an advantage.
12. Proposal Submission
Trócaire invites interested individuals and companies to submit the following application documents:
Ø Expression of interest outlining how the consultant(s) meets the selection criteria and their understanding of the ToR and methodology
Ø Names and CVs of individuals or team members proposed and their roles in the achievement of the assignment
Ø 3 professional referees (previous clients)
Ø 3 examples of similar pieces of work completed within the past two years
Ø A proposed activities schedule/work plan with time frame
Ø Financial proposal detailing consultant(s) itemized fees, data collection and administrative costs
Ø The proposal shall be sent, in soft copy, to [email protected] with “Trocaire Gender, Age Diversity and Climate Change Study” as the email subject
Ø The deadline for applying is 20th of June 2017. We aim to select the consultant by 30th June 2017 and start the contract immediately thereafter.
13. Ethical Standards and Intellectual Property
The consultant(s) should take all reasonable steps to ensure that the study is designed and conducted to respect and protect the rights and welfare of the people and communities involved and to ensure that the study is technically accurate and reliable, is conducted in a transparent and impartial manner, and contributes to organizational learning and accountability. The consultant(s) will also commit to adhering to Trócaire’s Safeguarding Programme Participant Policy and Code of Conduct. All products arising from this study will be owned by Trócaire. The consultant(s) will not be allowed, without prior authorization in writing, to present any of the analytical results as his or her own or to make use of the research results for private publication purposes.
 More information in www.trocaire.org p
Trócaire invites interested individuals and companies to submit the following application documents:
- Expression of interest outlining how the consultant(s) meets the selection criteria and their understanding of the ToR and methodology
- Names and CVs of individuals or team members proposed and their roles in the achievement of the assignment
- 3 professional referees (previous clients)
- 3 examples of similar pieces of work completed within the past two years
- A proposed activities schedule/work plan with time frame
- Financial proposal detailing consultant(s) itemized fees, data collection and administrative costs
- The proposal shall be sent, in soft copy, to [email protected] with “Trocaire Gender, Age Diversity and Climate Change Study” as the email subject
- The deadline for applying is 20th of June 2017. We aim to select the consultant by 30th June 2017 and start the contract immediately thereafter.