Climate and Security Risk - Scoping Assessment Expert
The multidimensional nature of climate change creates far-reaching consequences not only for the environment but also for development and ultimately for the security of people, communities and states. While climate change does not cause violent conflict in and of itself, it can multiply risks known to contribute to insecurity, overburden state capacity, and make already vulnerable communities more susceptible to threats.
In the past 15-20 years, these interlinkages between climate change, prevention and sustaining peace have received a growing amount of attention both among researchers and increasingly also in policy circles. In the Security Council, for instance, a landmark Presidential Statement from 2011 (PRST/2011/15) paved the way for more regular engagement on this topic and set the stage for a series of formal outcomes over the past two years recognizing the adverse impact of climate change on stability and calling for “adequate risk assessments and risk management strategies by governments and the United Nations”. Additionally, the presence of the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) (UNSCR1770 (2007)) in Iraq as a special political mission, has a mandate to provide advice, support and assistance to the Government and the people of Iraq on advancing inclusive political dialogue and national and community-level reconciliation; facilitating regional dialogue and cooperation between Iraq and its neighbours; promoting gender equality; and promoting coordination while facilitating delivery in the humanitarian and development areas such as water security and broader environmental issues.
The Climate Security Mechanism
The Climate Security Mechanism (CSM) was established as a joint initiative by UNDP, DPPA and UNEP in October 2018. The Phase II project (2020-2022) will build on the progress, leveraging existing expertise and knowledge and the results achieved in “Phase I” of its work, including: guidance in the shape of a Climate Security Toolbox with a conceptual approach to climate-related security risk assessments; enhanced partnerships with UN and other entities; an internal stocktaking of UN activities; and targeted advocacy at the senior and working levels across and beyond the UN system to raise greater awareness of the interlinkages between climate change, prevention and sustaining peace. This project, supported by Sweden, Germany, Norway and the UK, will further mainstream the analysis and management of climate-related security risks into the work of the UN system at the field level. The CSM will support regional and country-specific climate-related security risk assessments as well as the development of response strategies to test and validate the CSM’s conceptual approach and to inform policy, planning and programming work, including in the Arab States.
SDG Climate Facility Project
Recently, UNDP has scaled up their response to human security and climate change resilience in the Arab States through the SDG Climate Facility Project, which seeks to enhance the capacity of regional and national institutions to effectively take climate action in a way that brings benefits across SDGs and for crisis prevention/recovery efforts, including support to scale-up climate finance for innovative local solutions. In doing so, the SDG-Climate Facility project brings together multi-lateral institutions in the region such as the League of Arab States (LAS) and the Arab Water Council (AWC), and leading UN system partners active on climate actions in the region, including the UN Development Programme (UNDP) UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), the UN Environment Finance Initiative (UNEP-FI), the UN Human Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat), the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), and the World Food Programme (WFP).
Following shocks from conflict in recent years, the Arab States region may now face the largest displacement crisis in the world. A complex crisis including slowing economic growth and large vulnerable populations have exposed countries to risks that climate change can exacerbate. The Arab States region has long been disadvantaged by a climate and geography unfavourable to large-scale agriculture. This in turn affects food security in the region. Furthermore, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events including droughts and flash floods, are projected to increase due to climate change leading to water scarcity. As these displaced populations are mostly hosted in communities (with the flip-side being situated in specific camps), support is needed to strengthen absorptive capacities, understanding of long-term displacement as a development issue and to factor in climate security in resilience response strategies. Climate change factors have significant and long reaching effects to populations throughout the region and may ultimately undermine human security. The recent emergence of COVID-19 has now compounded risks related to governance, socio-economic development, social cohesion and food security, and undermined the capacity of states and communities to adapt to climate change.
The League of Arab States
The League of Arab States (LAS) is a regional intergovernmental organization established on 22 March 1945. The main goal of the organization is to “Draw closer relations between Member States and coordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider the interests of the Arab countries, with a focus on developing the economy, resolving disputes and coordinating political issues.” The League of Arab States aims at improving the standards of living of the Arab citizens through developing and enhancing economic and social policies to achieve Arab integration within the framework of the Arab conventions, charters, and strategies adopted in all areas. In response to the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030, the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States issued resolution 91/1 in April 2016 to establish the Sustainable Development and International Cooperation Department (SDIC) within the structure of the Secretariat to support Arab efforts in implementing the sustainable development goals 2030. LAS-SDIC main challenges in achieving sustainable development are water scarcity, climate change, high rates of illiteracy, increased population rates, low level of infrastructure, and conflicts.
LAS-SDIC established as well the Arab Geographical Information Room (AGIR) to address the integration of the SDGs and help to achieve adequate information that improves the coherence between the three global agendas. AGIR was established by the League of Arab States, hosted by the Arab Water Council (AWC), to address the information and analytical gaps to inform decision-makers in the region better. AGIR, therefore, has been working to “unpack” complex topics of how emerging climate-related risks interact with structural challenges, and how to foster coherence and alignment between regional, national and local actions and minimize trade-offs between different sectors while setting up development plans - contributing to increasing knowledge towards a more in-depth assessment in several climate change areas, including risk, resilience, and their nexus. AGIR is utilizing advanced technologies, satellite imagery, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conducting regional analysis for climate change patterns and hydro-meteorological risks in the Arab region. Other parts of the LAS that work on areas related to climate security include the LAS Department of Environment, Housing, Water Resources and Sustainable Development; and the International Cooperation Department.
 Al-Ghwell, H. (2019). Where does the MENA region’s food come from? MENU Forum. 19 February 2019. https://mena-forum.com/where-mena-regions-food-comes-from/#.XkVhPjL7SUk
The key focus of the consultancy (one expert) is to develop and conduct a scoping study on policy imperatives and opportunities for the League of Arab States to address climate-related security risks through:
- Establishing a common understanding and consolidated mapping of regional policies, frameworks, strategies, roadmaps; and reports as well as studies from the United Nations, the World Bank and think tank/ research institutions that have an impact on the understanding of and addressing climate-security and associated risks in the region.
- Providing recommendations on possible opportunities for the UN system to support LAS and other regional partners to enhance mainstreaming of climate-related risks into policies, tools, databases, early warning systems and regional roadmaps.
Duties and Responsibilities
SCOPE OF WORK, RESPONSIBILITIES AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ANALYTICAL WORK
Focusing on the existing work portfolios, institutional capacities, and mandate of the League of Arab States, the Consultant is expected to:
1. Conduct a Desk Review of existing policies, road-maps, strategies, tools that have a relevant to climate-security, and create an overview of existing policies and programming initiatives related to climate security in the Arab States at the national and regional level including transboundary policies and initiatives applying a climate-security lens, with particular attention to the extent they affect displaced populations and vulnerable host communities.
2. Based on existing information, including statements, declarations, or other high-level validated documents, explain the understanding and approach (definition, if existing) of LAS on the issue of climate-security, including political sensitivities at regional or country level.
3. Identify gaps in existing policies, strategies, roadmaps, frameworks and tools, current and emerging data and strategic plans, policy and programming of climate-related security risks related to the Arab States context, based on available data.
4. Identify and map key processes, stakeholders (including regional actors such as ESCWA, RICCAR, African Union Commission, Arab Maghreb Union, Special Political Missions, NGOs and audiences that need to be engaged (including Government, NGOs/community-led organizations inclusive of women and youth groups), to address climate-security related risks in the Arab States region
5. Identify and map key challenges (related to governance, institutions, geopolitics, finance, capacity or others) to addressing shared climate-related security risks in the Arab States region.
6. Identify areas of collaboration, capacity development gaps (that LAS may benefit from support to fill), and propose systematic engagement with existing UN initiatives, AUC and other regional entities and in climate security related areas.
7. Document best practices and lessons learnt in relation to climate security policy and programming, tools, institutional arrangements and mechanisms, including integrated climate security early warning and prevention mechanisms in the Arab States.
8. Based on analysis, make recommendations to leverage existing capacities, information, data, key regional processes and comparative advantages of stakeholders and potential partners to better address climate-related security risks and inform early warning system (such as AGIR, for instance), hot spot identification, and capacity building/ trainings.
9. Throughout the baseline study, highlight studies, data, etc. that reflect the differentiated impacts of climate change on women and men, girls and boys and to the interlinkage between local livelihoods, climate change and conflicts in the Arab States. Furthermore, explore how existing policies, strategies and roadmaps are gender sensitive, for instance, the impact (foreseen and unforeseen) of climate security risk policies on gender (in)equalities.
10. Undertake consultations, with local communities and civil societies, as necessary to inform the activities and scope of work as identified.
The final report should include the following components:
- Objective, accurate and credible baseline information about the existing data and strategic policy, planning, and programming entry points for LAS and partners to address shared climate risks in the Arab States. This may include case studies in selected geographic areas implemented in the UN system that may be replicated or scaled up.
- In coordination with LAS, the CSM, RBAS/SDG Climate Facility, UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) and the Arab Water Council produce key recommendations for LAS to leverage opportunities for addressing shared climate change and security risks in Arab States.
- Consideration of LAS’s ongoing and planned work in selected sectors (e.g., Climate Change and DRR policy, Food and Agriculture, Renewable energy, Natural Resource Management, Water Management) and target groups (e.g., refugees/host communities, women, and youth).
-Outcome for the UNDP Crisis Bureau and UNDP Regional Bureau for Arab States: gap assessment and recommendations for LAS together with UNDP, the Climate Security Mechanism and partners to leverage existing and upcoming opportunities.
- Knowledge of UN, including UNDP terminology, language and style.
- Demonstrates integrity by modelling the UN’s values and ethical standards;
- Promotes the vision, mission, and strategic goals of UNDP, and partner organizations:
- Displays cultural, gender, religion, race, nationality and age sensitivity and adaptability
- Demonstrated ability to write in a clear and concise manner;
- Demonstrated ability to organise and structure information;
- Some understanding of democratic governance and sustainable development, etc.
- Excellent analytical and writing skills demonstrating fluency in English language; Demonstrated accuracy and attention to detail;
- Ability to be flexible and respond to changes as part of the review and feedback process;
- Demonstrated ability to meet deadlines and work under pressure.
Required Skills and Experience
- A master’s degree in political science, international development, sustainable development, conflict studies, environmental management, natural resource management, and other relevant disciplines
- At least 10 years’ experience with policy, programming and knowledge management for UN, government, and/or bilateral/multilateral organizations in climate change, natural resource management and/or conflict prevention and peacebuilding. (required)
- Excellent all-round knowledge of the UN system, in particular its international development/ climate change AND its peace and security work is highly desirable.
- Extensive experience in developing and conducting scoping studies for policy imperatives including mapping of regional policies, frameworks, strategies, roadmaps, and reports (required).
- Excellent drafting and report writing skills.
- Demonstrated experience in organizing and facilitating consultative processes is an advantage.
- Previous work experience in the Arab States (MENA) region on climate change, peace and security and knowledge of the work of the League of Arab States is an added advantage.
- Fluency in written and spoken English is required.
- Knowledge of Arabic is desirable for this role.
- Working knowledge of another UN language would be an asset
The application package containing the following (to be uploaded as one file):
- A cover letter with a brief description of why the Offer considers her/himself the most suitable for the assignment.
- Personal CV or P11, indicating all past experience from similar projects and specifying the relevant assignment period (from/to), as well as the email and telephone contacts of at least three (3) professional references.
- A two-page methodology on how the Offeror will conduct the work including a Work Plan and approach in delivering the required outputs within the assignment period.
Note: The above documents need to be scanned in one file and uploaded to the online application as one document.
Shortlisted candidates (ONLY) will be requested to submit a Financial Proposal.
- The financial proposal shall specify a total lump sum amount, and payment terms around the specific and measurable deliverables of the TOR. Payments are based upon output, i.e. upon delivery of the services specified in the TOR, and deliverables accepted and certified by the technical manager.
- The financial proposal must be all-inclusive and take into account various expenses that will be incurred during the contract, including: the daily professional fee; (excluding mission travel); living allowances at the duty station; communications, utilities and consumables; life, health and any other insurance; risks and inconveniences related to work under hardship and hazardous conditions (e.g., personal security needs, etc.), when applicable; and any other relevant expenses related to the performance of services under the contract.
- This consultancy is a home-based assignment, therefore, there is no envisaged travel cost to join duty station/repatriation travel.
- In the case of unforeseeable travel requested by UNDP, payment of travel costs including tickets, lodging and terminal expenses should be agreed upon, between UNDP and Individual Consultant, prior to travel and will be reimbursed. In general, UNDP should not accept travel costs exceeding those of an economy class ticket. Should the IC wish to travel on a higher class he/she should do so using their own resources.
- If the Offeror is employed by an organization/company/institution, and he/she expects his/her employer to charge a management fee in the process of releasing him/her to UNDP under a Reimbursable Loan Agreement (RLA), the Offeror must indicate at this point, and ensure that all such costs are duly incorporated in the financial proposal submitted to UNDP.
- The Financial Proposal is to be emailed as per the instruction in the separate email that will be sent to shortlisted candidates.
Applicants are reviewed based on Required Skills and Experience stated above and based on the technical evaluation criteria outlined below. Applicants will be evaluated based on cumulative scoring. When using this weighted scoring method, the award of the contract will be made to the individual consultant whose offer has been evaluated and determined as:
- Being responsive/compliant/acceptable; and
- Having received the highest score out of a pre-determined set of weighted technical and financial criteria specific to the solicitation where technical criteria weighs 70% and Financial criteria/ Proposal weighs 30%.
Technical evaluation - Total 70% (700 points):
- Criteria 1. Previous work experience in the Arab States (MENA) region on climate change, peace and security and knowledge of the work of the League of Arab States is an added advantage; Weight = 40%; Maximum Points: 280.
- Criteria 2. Demonstrated experience in organizing and facilitating consultative processes; Weight = 30%; Maximum Points: 210.
- Criteria 3. Knowledge of the UN system, in particular its international development/ climate change AND its peace and security work; Weight = 10%; Maximum Points: 70.
- Criteria 4. Proposed methodology (including work plan and approach in delivering the required outputs within the assignment period); Weight = 20%; Maximum Points: 140
Candidates obtaining a minimum of 70% (490 points) of the maximum obtainable points for the technical criteria (700points) shall be considered for the financial evaluation.
Financial evaluation - Total 30% (300 points)
The following formula will be used to evaluate financial proposal:
p = y (µ/z), where
p = points for the financial proposal being evaluated
y = maximum number of points for the financial proposal
µ = price of the lowest priced proposal
z = price of the proposal being evaluated
Candidate obtaining the highest combined scores in the combined score of Technical and Financial evaluation will be considered technically qualified and will be offered to enter into contract with UNDP.
The consultant will work under the guidance and direct supervision of Climate and Security Risk Policy Specialist, CB/CPPRI, Chief Technical Advisor at the SDG Climate Facility and will be responsible for the fulfilment of the deliverables as specified above.
The Consultant will work in close coordination with UNDP, the Sustainable Development Department of the League of Arab States, the Climate Security Mechanism and its partners. UNDP will support and coordinate with the UNDP, Country Teams and other UN entities on the ground, as required.
- Reports to Climate and Security Risk Policy Specialist, CB/CPPRI, Chief Technical Advisor at the SDG Climate Facility and the designated focal point at LAS
- Ensures timely and quality execution of the Terms of Reference
- Ensures unconditional carrying out of requirements of the ContractThe Consultant will be responsible for providing her/his own laptop.
- Accepted and upon certification of satisfactory completion by the manager.
- Payments are based upon output, i.e. upon delivery of the services specified above and deliverables accepted and upon certification of satisfactory completion by the manager.
- The work week will be based on 35 hours, i.e. on a 7 hour working day, with core hours being between 9h00 and 18h00 daily
Annexes (click on the hyperlink to access the documents):
Annex 1 - UNDP P-11 Form for ICs
Annex 2 - IC Contract Template
Annex 3 – IC General Terms and Conditions
Annex 4 – RLA Template
Any request for clarification must be sent by email to
The UNDP Central Procurement Unit will respond by email and will send written copies of the response, including an explanation of the query without identifying the source of inquiry, to all applicants