Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are basic needs for human development. Ghana has met the MDG target for water with 89% whilst sanitation coverage has been a major set-back for the country. The country made limited progress in improved sanitation from 7% in 1990 to 15% in 2015, much lower than the national target of 54%. From the disaggregated table below adapted from the JMP report 2015(UNICEF and WHO, 2015), urban sanitation coverage is about 20% – double the progress made in rural. Ghana urban coverage is much lower than the global urban coverage of 82%.
Source: Adapted: annex 3, Page 62, Country, Regional and Global Estimates on Water and Sanitation, JMP, UNICEF and WHO, 2015.
The proportion of population with shared facility is relatively higher at 73% in 2015 compared to 46% in the 1990 (UNICEF and WHO, 2015) which is comparable to data established by the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey at 17.8% and 68.5% with improved and shared facility respectively ( DHS, 2014).
Over the last few decades, social demography has changed. And the change has not been well articulated in the overall development equation by many countries and development partners. The World Urbanisation Prospects, 2014 report projects that world population will be 66% urban by 2050, almost a complete reverse compared to 1950 with 30% urban. The pace at which this is changing is alarming. For example, Ghana’s urban – rural population ratio in 1990 was 36% urban: 64% rural. Within the last 25 years, the country’s population equation has reversed with 54% urban: 46% rural (UNICEF and WHO, 2015).
Furthermore, currently approximately 10,000 children die each year in Ghana from diarrhoea and pneumonia. Global studies indicate that access to improved sanitation facilities and good hygiene practices could reduce these deaths by up to 50%. This is supported by figures by DHS 2014, which indicates rates of diarrhoea in households with improved sanitation are less than half that of households with shared, public or no facilities.
These demographic and sanitation figures and disease incidences clearly call for an unwavering attention of the Government and the Development Partners in Ghana for a concerted effort to progress better as we embrace the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
As a pre-emptive measure to address these challenges/concerns and broaden the development equation, the Government of Ghana (GoG) with support from UNICEF and the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (EKN)/ Government of the Netherlands started a four-year pilot Urban Sanitation Project (2015-2018). The urban sanitation project is one of several projects under the GoG-UNICEF WASH Programme (2012-2016/2017). The pilot project is currently being implemented in Tamale in the North, Ashaiman, Greater Accra and Ho in the Volta region. The three areas differ significantly in geography, religion and ethnicity.
- Justification, Purpose and Utilization of Results
Rapid urbanisation and rural-urban migration is continuously exerting pressure on limited resources such as water, land and environmental health. Consequently, development in urban centres/small towns have been haphazard, effecting general population at large and urban poor the most. The urban sanitation interventions have been piecemeal, without a concerted national strategy.
The urban sanitation project has made steady progress since its inception in 2015. Major preparatory activities such as the baseline study, development of sanitation technology option manual, GIS-mapping of WASH facilities, assessment of existing waste water treatment facilities/services and affordability study have been completed. On-going activities include construction of water and sanitation facilities in the selected beneficiary schools, training of artisans (masons and carpenters) on toilet technology options and triggering communities for demand generation using three different approaches namely the urban Community Led-
Total Sanitation (CLTS), Community Led-Urban Environmental Sanitation (CLUES) and Community Development for Health (CDH).
Other activities that will follow these interventions are introducing municipal engineers and planners to various waste water/faecal sludge treatment technology options, business/private sector development along the sanitation value chain, sanitation marketing & micro-financing and reviewing of relevant WASH policy documents.
The other significant players involved in urban sanitation include the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) Sanitation and Water project (2013-2018) ( World Bank Funded), Ghana Water and Sanitation for Urban Poor (WSUP), UN-Habitat which supported the Slum Up-grading Project/Federation for Urban Poor, Global Communities Water Access Sanitation and Hygiene for the Urban Poor (WASH-UP) funded by USAID, Ghana Netherlands WASH Programme (GNWP) supported SNV (The Netherlands Development Organisation) and Fidelity Bank’s WASH P2P Project, Water Aid Ghana and African Development Bank (AfDB) and DFID supported innovative WASH financing project by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD).
All partners are guided by the single goal of providing access to improved water and sanitation, however, implementation modalities differ. Similar modes converge, providing synergistic opportunity as in case of many projects which operate on non-subsidy mode. In contrast, there are projects which operate on subsidy mode. A total divergence without any opportunity for synergy. Subsequently, impeding overall progress.
The situation was no different for rural sanitation until the adoption of the Rural Sanitation Strategy and Model for Ghana (Aqua consult Ltd and Maple Consult, 2011) which is now a nationally accepted rural strategy. Such an approach reduces redundancies and harmonize approaches for synergy. In addition, urban communities have different challenges, many of which are complex in nature. To respond to these complexities, there is a need to develop a comprehensive and robust approach.
Therefore, GoG and UNICEF seeks to develop a workable urban sanitation strategy/model which can respond to current needs of urban centers. Developing a nationally adoptable strategy would require consistent engagement/consultation with all key relevant stakeholders and beneficiaries, including field visits. This is also to enable increased ownership and partnership development. The uniform strategy will ensure coherent approach to addressing the challenges and achieve desired results.
The GoG and UNICEF are challenged to meet this engagement. Therefore, we are seeking consultancy services of consortium led by an international institution (An international institution in partnership with local institutions) to carry out this assignment.
- Study Scope and Focus; Existing Information Sources
The focus of sanitation has long been on containment and partially on components along the value chain. Establishing sanitation services and required infrastructures along the sanitation value – chain (Figure 1) is paramount for sustainable sanitation, especially in urban areas.
Figure 1: Sanitation chain
The Rural Sanitation Model has scale-up strategies on components like 1) creating enabling environment, 2) capacity building, 3) demand creation & 4) supply and 5) monitoring & evaluation.
An illustration of an Urban Sanitation Model has been provided in the urban proposal on which most activities of the pilot project are being rolled-out. Three major components include 1) strategies for demand creation, 2) ways of creating enabling environment and 3) service delivery approaches. The strength and weakness of the illustrated model need to be tested and refined and/or re-developed.
Lessons could be drawn from other models such as the Sanitation 21 by the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (2014) which provide planning guidance to improving City wide-sanitation services. This is similar to the City-level Sanitation Planning (CSP) approaches in India and Indonesia.
Further to these models, it is expected that the assignment distils from the implementation and scale-up model adopted by the other notable urban players listed (not limited to) above.
Thus, the main goal of the assignment is to develop a nationally adoptable and scalable Urban Sanitation Model that best fit the current Ghana’s administrative and governance structure – which include government, development partners, municipalities, private sector, and other relevant stakeholders.
Other cross-thematic challenges on gender, disability, climate adaptation and disaster responses should be taken into consideration.
Overall Urban Sanitation Model: Suggest a nationally adoptable and scalable model considering all the following components.
A. Sanitation Demand Creation and Behaviour Change Communication
What are current demand generation / social mobilisation approaches used in the urban areas? What are the strengths and weakness of each approaches?
Given social, ethnic and geographic variability, which approach/mix of approaches would be the most suitable for urban areas of Ghana? Suggest a suitable scale-up approach.
B. Supply Chain and Service Delivery/ Business Development/ Financing options
What are the existing supply chain or sanitation services available in the MMDA? How coherently are each businesses including services linked along the chain/establishment of supply-chain?
How many government or private sector supported sanitation businesses are well functioning? How effectively are cost recovery approaches incepted in each business models?
What is the total population served by each business? What measures are used to strengthen private sector in sanitation business/ boost sanitation marketing/micro-financing? Are these sustainable business options? Suggest a suitable scale-up approach.
C. Technology options – containment, disposal, treatment and re-use
Existing WWTPs- on-site sanitation system or the centralised or decentralised system or a combination of different systems? Types of systems in the MMDA – centralised or de-centralised or onsite sanitation system. Total CAPEX and OPEX cost existing options including cost recovery approaches.
Total waste collected, treated and re-used/day. Are services affordable? Profitable? Are there any successful operational business models?
What needs to be done to ensure all agencies have required technical capacity to take up technical challenges? Suggest a suitable scale-up approach.
D. WASH Governance/ Enabling Environment
What are the gaps in existing regulations (national and municipal) that hinder WASH accessibility and in liquid waste management? ( e.g. land ownership structure, approval process)
What can be done to improve WASH governance?
E: Monitoring & Evaluation
- List of monitoring and evaluation guides to ensure sustainability of both services and business.
Primary data may be gathered through stakeholder consultation workshops or from the field visit/observation, primarily in the 12 MMDAs where Urban Sanitation projects are implemented in some form (Kumasi, Ashaiman, Ho, Tamale, Jasikan, Atiwa, Nanumba North, Ga West, Cape Coast, Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem (KEEA), Ga South and Accra). Besides, other stakeholders – government, development partners, civil society organizations (IPs), beneficiaries (landlords, tenants, private sector) need to be actively involved through the processes.
Secondary data may be collected through a comprehensive review of documents such as project proposal, baseline report, technology options report and manual, WASH affordability, Waste water assessment and related documents, country water and sanitation policies and strategies- National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan (NESSAP), Municipal/Metropolitan Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan (MESSAP), national norms and directives on water and sanitation and others useful guidelines/documents will have to be undertaken. International best practices. Additional information can also be sourced from respective MMDAs in consultation with focal agencies such as School Health, Education Program (SHEP Coordinator)/Ghana Education Services (GES), Waste Management Division, Regional Environmental Health Office (REHO) /Municipal Env. Health Office (MEHO), etc.
Since urban sanitation is a relatively new intervention, secondary data/information availability along the whole sanitation value-chain may be limited, particularly on treatment facilities and sanitation businesses. In addition, model development rely on experiences/ thoughts of those involved in implementing on-going projects or beneficiary of those completed projects. Methodologies recommended from other locations (if any) may not have time to be tested to validate inclusion in the model.
- Study Process and Methodology: Specific Tasks
Urban Sanitation Working Group: A national stakeholder committee/working group comprising of members from government, development partners, civil society and district assemblies currently implementing urban sanitation will be formed during the inception phase. Primary purpose of the group is to guide the development of the urban sanitation model. The group may be sub-divided to oversee different components of the model development.
Desk Study/ Review – After signing of the contract, the consultants are expected to review documents related to the components of an urban sanitation model, models from other countries including processes involved. The list for review could include government documents, relevant NGOs/stakeholders and research institutions. The findings from desk review may be then presented to the Working Group.
National Workshops: The consultants are expected to organise four main workshops, besides component specific or district specific workshop needs while carrying out the assignment.
· An Inception Workshop: Desk review findings including data gaps and approaches to establishing those data (And agreeing on data collection and reporting modality) are expected to be presented during this workshop. The workshop is expected to also help in conceptualising, outlining the development approach, and establishing stakeholder collaboration for the assignment.
Desk review and inception phase including the workshop is expected to be organised in 15 Jan 2017-End Feb 2017 or/ within the first month after signing the contract.
Data Collection & Comparative Note: Based on data gap, the consultants are expected to collect data from the on-going urban sanitation projects in approximately 12 MMDAs. Gathering both primary and secondary data will be necessary for the assignment, of which some will be quantitative whilst most will be qualitative in nature. Structured field observation/participating in community activities may be necessary to understand processes involved. Further, surveys and semi-structured interviews (SSI) may need to be undertaken to measure effectiveness of approaches.
Lessons from past initiatives and learnings from on-going interventions across Ghana need to feed in the urban model. Thus, the consultants are expected to gather data on concepts, implementation processes, strengths/advantages and weaknesses/disadvantages of various approaches used by different projects/programmes, along the five-broad components. Assessment of strengths and weaknesses of various approaches could be ascertained by gathering data relevant to each component (Data to be collected against each component is indicated in table 1 below).
The last column on the table shows possible respondents namely the Development Partner, MMDA/CSOs, Private Sector and public/beneficiaries. Multi-pronged respondents/ data sources may be necessary to authenticate data collected and for triangulation purposes.
The table below provide an indicative guide to enable comparison along the five-broad components listed above against different players or may be even broken down further based on annexure 1.
Table 1: Data collection tool (guide):
(to ascertain strengths /advantages and weakness /disadvantages)
Types of respondents
Sanitation Demand Creation &
BCC concept/approach and scalability
Total population, trigger points, total community triggered, ODF declared, total investment, unit cost, conversion rate, etc.
Development Partner (DP)
Total population, trigger points, effectiveness, unit cost, total investment, total community triggered, total number of toilets constructed, total communities ODF declaration rate, conversion rate, budget availability, success view, staff strength, implementation & technical capacity, M & E capacity, etc
Community background, ethnic, trigger points ( change decision), scalability, etc
Sanitation Supply Chain/ Sanitation Services and Financing Options
List of sanitation businesses, existing supply chain or sanitation services available in each MMDAs. Types of services available, number of private vs government sectors involved in providing those services, cost and services options/approaches, etc
List and types of private sector sanitation businesses, technical capacity, total HH/ population coverage/total clients, types of customers, cost of services, affordability, availability of finance, business profitability, replicability and scalability, etc.
Opinion of sanitation services, cost of services, affordability, availability of financing options, sustainability, etc
Types of business models/concepts, financing options and strategies, number of private sector beneficiaries, capacity strengths, sustainability and scalability, etc
Development Partner (DP)
Sanitation technology options – containment, emptying, treatment and re-use
List all WWTP or technologies in the MMDA. Type of system- centralised system or de-centralised system or on-site system. Total carrying capacity, capital and operation expenditures, type of ventures, operations modality, total waste collected/day, treated /day, re-used/day, profitable venture, etc.
Financing availability, operation modality, cost recovery approaches, Failure and success stories, etc
List of technologies promoted, coverage and effective technologies.
List of business models promoted, coverage, success or failure.
List of financing options promoted, coverage, success or failure.
Development Partner (DP)
WASH integration initiatives promoted – gender, menstruation, disability, emergency, etc
WASH policies along the value chain particularly liquid waste promoted
Development Partner (DP)
Availability of required human and financial resources for liquid waste management, adequate technical expertise, necessary WASH policies and regulations, etc
WASH Initiatives well integrated – gender, menstruation, disability, emergency, etc
All inclusions well addressed
Effect of land ownership and tenure impacting HH accessibility, financing option tuning requirement, etc
Beneficiary / Public
Monitoring & Evaluation
Current M & E model. Strengths & weaknesses of existing M & E approaches, etc
Beneficiary / Public
The consultant is expected to develop a more thorough data collection tool, based on the sample provided above.
The whole process of data collection is expected to take about 4 months (spread across 5-6 months) or plan from March through August 2017. Triangulation may be necessary to verify authenticity of data collected, for which the validation workshop will have to be organised once data compilation and analysis is complete. All key relevant stakeholders need to be involved during the validation.
· A validation workshop: Once data collection is complete, the consultants are expected to present the findings on various approaches (using both primary, secondary data and field observation) for each proposed components to the Working Group and other relevant stakeholders. Once the findings are validated through a sector consultation approach, the consultants are then expected to follow through with comparative analysis. Validation workshop last week of July -August 2017.
Data/Comparative Analysis – Based on appropriate analytical tools and methodology, and based on the data to be collected as described in data collection/comparative note para above, a comparative analysis report has to be generated. The consultants are expected to develop a comparative analysis of the concepts, implementation processes and approaches used by different projects and programmes, assessing their strengths / advantages and weaknesses / disadvantages along the five broad components of the model to be developed, as listed in section 4 above. The analysis must cover various sanitation components along the value chain. Comparison should be guided by strengths and weaknesses of the approaches, their effectiveness, and scalability including cost implications. Cross comparison can be done at component level, project level and/or programme level or both. Successful approaches/models implemented in other countries may be considered, after accounting adaptability and scalability in Ghana. This phase is expected to be complete in two months or Sept – October 2017.
· A model drafting workshop: The consultants are expected to present the Comparative Analysis Report to the Working Group and other relevant stakeholders. The Urban Sanitation Model is expected to be drafted through a participatory/consultative approach, led by the Consultants in consultation with the Group in a workshop forum, based on the Comparative Report, distilling those approaches with many strengths for each component; which will then form basis of the Urban Sanitation Model. The process may take about 2 months/ or November –December 2017.
· A final workshop: To present and agree on the final urban sanitation model to all relevant stakeholders.
The final Urban Strategy/Model may then be presented to a wider audience including decision makers from all relevant agencies and the working group. The final strategy may then be presented to Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate (EHSD), the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD), Government of Ghana (GoG) for endorsement.
Expected duration for this phase is about one month / in January, 2018.
- Stakeholder Participation
The assignment will require extensive collaboration with relevant non-exhaustive stakeholders mentioned in section 3, 4 and 5 of the TOR. The nature of the assignment would entail exploring new stakeholders especially those involved in urban sanitation, including INGOs, local NGOs and other agencies.
- Accountabilities and Reporting
The consortium undertaking the assignment will report directly to the Urban WASH Specialist, Accra, Ghana. And to the Urban Sanitation Working Group which will be formed to specifically guide the model development process.
Under the overall guidance of the Chief of WASH Section and team members, necessary input and guidance may be provided whenever required. The consortium will also interact with other members of the WASH team and M&E team of UNICEF as required.
The consortium shall send monthly updates to all stakeholders (maximum of 7 pages) based on a format that will be agreed during the inception.
- Expected Deliverables and Timelines
The ten-month assignment is expected to start in 15 January 2017 through 31st January 2018.
The selected consortium will be required to submit a detailed activity plan on signing of the contract, considering the indicated time frame. Any review of the time frame would be discussed during the Inception phase with the Working Group.
The following are the expected deliverables of the assignment:
- Inception Report: The report should detail out synthesis of literatures reviewed into study context, approach/methodology and detailed work-plan. Report shall have a maximum of 20 pages, excluding annexures and submitted by end of February 2017.
Validation Report/Comparative analysis report: The report should entail comparison of different approaches, implementation timeline, strengths and weaknesses of approaches, its effectiveness, and scalability including cost implications. A separate report is expected for each components tentatively listed – Report on a) social mobilisation/BCC, b) supply chain, business development and financing, c) WASH technology options, d) WASH governance and 5) M & E) on page 4-5 which will be finalised during the first Workshop Group Meeting. All report/s shall not be more than a maximum of 40 pages including annexures. And the reports shall be submitted by end of October 2017. All these reports should be done well, as it is expected to be uploaded for reference.
Draft Urban Sanitation Strategy/Model: The best and most suitable approach for each and every urban sanitation components shall be included in the model. Include graphical presentation wherever possible. The strategy shall not be more than 40 pages, excluding annexures and shall be submitted by end of December 2017.
Final Urban Sanitation Strategy/Model: The final Urban Sanitation Strategy/Model for Ghana shall not be more than 40 pages excluding annexes and submitted by end of January 2018. This should also include of final endorsement by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD), Government of Ghana (GoG) and be adopted as the National Urban Sanitation Strategy 2018.
Urban Briefing note: A 2-4 pages briefing note of the Urban Sanitation Model.
Note while submitting the deliverables
- All meetings, workshops and discussions should be well documented including contact details of people for future references/follow-up correspondences.
- Final Report/s: All reports will be submitted in electronic and hard format. The submission of the Final reports will include two (2) hard copies for all relevant/primary stakeholders. In addition, cleaned dataset in Stata/SPSS or excel format for future reference is required to be submitted to UNICEF.
- The publication should also credit all relevant stakeholders involved during the process.
- All publications should carry logo of – UNICEF, GNWP and GoG.
Deliverables and Timelines
Tentative start date
Target date / remarks
End February 2017
March – August 2017
Work phase / field work & analysis and reporting on each components
Validation report/ Comparative Analysis report on each component
End August 2017
Sept – Oct 2017
July – August – September 2017
Drafting of the Urban Model
Urban Sanitation Model Drafting workshop – Working Group
Drafting the Urban Model
Presentation of the Draft Urban Sanitation Model
End October- begin November 2017
November – December 2017
Present the draft Urban Model 1st Week Jan 2018
October – November 2017
Finalisation of the Urban Modal
Presentation and endorsement of the draft Final Urban Model
Briefing note on the Model
Presentation ( workshop & launch) and endorsement of the Model by the MLGRD
Last Week January 2018
- Dissemination Plan
All relevant stakeholders will be presented with 2 hard copies of the final report. In addition, a copy each will be distributed during the endorsement/launching of the strategy by the MLGRD.
All other reports (comparative analysis reports) including the final strategy/model will be uploaded on to government, UNICEF and other agencies websites, for easy reference. The report and learnings will also be disseminated on various regional and global online and face-forums. To ensure proper dissemination, a 2-4 pages briefing document on the model will be made available both on soft and print copies.
- Payment Schedule
Cost of Assignment
The quotation/assignment estimate should be inclusive of all costs necessary to complete the assignment – professional fees, external and internal travel including International expert airfare, meetings, field visits/observations, cost for all 4 major workshops, printing of the final strategy document (Minimum of 200 copies) and endorsement/strategy launching. And the expenses will be negotiated with UNICEF, subject to maximum allowable UN-GOG rates (where applicable).
Payment in respect of the exercise will be effected as follows:
· 20% of the cost of the assignment will be provided upon submission of the Inception Report.
· 30% upon completion of validation workshop/submission of comparative analysis reports.
· 20% will be paid on submission of the Draft Strategy.
· The remaining 30% will be paid upon finalisation and endorsement/launching of the Strategy by the MLGRD.
- Expected background and Experience
The nature of contract is expected to be institutional. A consortium of international and national educational institutions would be ideal, given opportunities for curriculum development in planning and sustainable development. The consortium is expected to be led by the international institute.
The selected lead institution and consortium partners should have a minimum of 10 and 7 years’ experience respectively in urban planning, sustainable infrastructure development, project planning and development. Relevant experience in the WASH sector, particularly in urban areas will be a clear advantage.
The consortium is expected to have composition of members with strong skills/specialisation in:
1) Social mobilisation Specialist (1)
2) Urban/sanitation planning Specialist (1)
3) Municipal financing and sanitation business development Specialist (1)
4) Governance, gender and legal Specialist (1)
5) M & E Specialist (1) and a
6) Graphic Designer. (1)
Note to the bidder/s: Having all members on-board through the whole period will have huge cost implication. Hence, suggested to make it need/phase based involvement – particularly gender & governance, M&E and graphic designer.
Team Leader/ international (1)
The Team Leader will be responsible to lead the overall assignment – in carrying out the assignment which include analysis, coordination, quality assurance of the deliverables and the workshops.
· An advanced degree in areas of water, sanitation and hygiene related fields, public health, sociology, urban planning, environmental management, project management, international development, economics or other relevant areas.
· Over 10 years’ experience in the research, education & development sector, with a focus on at least two of the following specialties will have an advantage– town/urban planning with focus on WASH, WASH related infrastructure development, city sanitation strategy, municipal financing, municipal governance, and in sanitation business development.
· Ability to operate computer Microsoft office programs (MS Word, Excel), is essential.
· Fluency in writing, reading and speaking English.
The remaining members should have one of the following with respect to their position in team (4):
· Advanced university degree in sociology, community development, urban planning, water, sanitation and hygiene related fields, public health, economics, international development, municipal financing, business development, statistics, gender and governance,
· Over 4-8 years’ experience in their respective field/position they will occupy with the team.
· Strong track record in relating and networking and analytical skills.
· Ability to operate computer Microsoft office programs (MS Word, Excel,), is essential.
· Fluency in writing, reading and speaking English.
Graphic Designer (1)
· Minimum of a diploma in graphic designing.
· An advanced qualification in an area related to designing and drawings.
· Over 5 years’ experience in graphic designing
· Strong track record in relating and networking and analytical skills.
· Ability to operate computer Microsoft office and other graphic designing programs.
· Fluency in writing, reading and speaking English.
- General Conditions: Procedures and Logistics
The consortium would also be expected to provide cross-country vehicles and other transportation for all phases of the assignment. The team would also be required to provide their own stationery and office materials/ consumables – computer, data storage devices, paper etc.
- Policy both parties should be aware of:
· Under the consultancy agreements, a month is defined as 21 working days, and fees are prorated accordingly. Consultants are not paid for weekends or public holidays.
· Consultants are not entitled to payment of overtime. All remuneration must be within the contract agreement.
· No contract may commence unless the contract is signed by both UNICEF and the consultant or Contractor.
- Proposal Submission
The consortium shall prepare a technical proposal (Maximum of 20 pages excluding annexes) outlining the consortium’s appreciation of the assignment, approach and methodology to be adopted, profile of team members (Curriculum Vitae to be included as annexes), proposed work-plan, and a detailed Price Schedule for negotiation and contract formulation. The methodology section should clearly outline the approach.
· Inception phase: Stakeholder consultations and preparatory (including the desk review)
· Data collection & validation phase
· Data analysis at programme level, project level, activity level
· Overall assignment coordination & overall quality assurance
· Model drafting phase
· Final Urban Sanitation Model
- Technical Evaluation Criteria
1.1 Overall Response 10
Completeness of response (5)
Overall concord between RFP requirements and proposal (5)
1.2 Experience of Company and Key Personnel 20
CV of key personnel (6)
Team composition (7)
Company profile indicating major work (7)
1.3 Proposed Methodology and Approach 40
Total Technical 70
Only proposals which receive a minimum of  points will be considered further.
- Price Proposal 30
The total amount of points allocated for the price component is . The maximum number of points will be allotted to the lowest price proposal that is opened and compared among those invited firms/institutions which obtain the threshold points in the evaluation of the technical component. All other price proposals will receive points in inverse proportion to the lowest price; e.g.:
Max. score for price proposal * Price of lowest priced proposal
Score for price proposal X = —————————
Price of proposal X
Total Technical and Price 100 Pts
 Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water, 2015 Update and MDG Assessment, UNICEF and the World Health Organisation ( UNICEF & WHO), 2015
 Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), Ghana Health Service (GHS) and the DHS Program, March 2015, Ghana – Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 2014
 United Nations, 2014, World Urbanisation Prospects, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), United Nations, (1-7).
 Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), Ghana Health Service (GHS) and the DHS Program, March 2015, Ghana – Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 2014.
 Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning: CLUES, Complete guidelines for Decision-Makers with 30-Tools, 2009, UN-Habitat, eawag, Water Supply and Sanitation (WSG). CLUES is a participatory planning and implementation tool for environmental sanitation infrastructures and services.
 CDH is a participatory development concept (with strong community empowerment concepts enabling community to initiate their own development plans) which has selected CLTS elements.
 Aquaconsult Ltd and Maple Consult, 2011, Rural Sanitation Model and Costed Scaling Up Strategy for Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and Hygiene in Ghana, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development and UNICEF.
 UNICEF Ghana, Improving Sanitation Access in Urban Ghana – Proposal for Funding from the Embassy of the Netherlands, Ghana, 16.
*Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, September 2014, Sanitation 21 – A planning Framework for Improving City-wide Sanitation Services, The International Water Alliance (IWA), The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and The Ducth Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).*
 Additional /extended relevant stakeholders