Some of Timor-Leste’s most substantial investments in water have been in irrigation infrastructure,
however, there has been an underinvestment in the development of the water resources and water supply
infrastructure for domestic, sanitation, and industrial needs. The Asian Water Development Outlook
(2016), assessed Water Security of Timor-Leste’s in Household, Economic, Urban and Environmental
dimensions as Hazardous, and, assessed Timor-Leste’ as Capable in securing against Resilience to Water-
Related Disasters. Appropriate management interventions are essential to ensure water security in
Household, Economic, Urban and Environmental dimensions. Timor-Leste’s water sector will have a
significant positive economic impact on the economy by improving access to safe, reliable, and
sustainable water supplies to the economy, including individuals, industry, commerce, and agriculture.
The government needs to establish sector priorities that align with national and international
development targets, to enhance economic growth, and to improve the health and well-being outcomes of
its citizens. A range of options are available for Timor-Leste but underlying many of these is the need
to undertake strategic analytical studies to guide investment options and decision making.
The key objectives of the Timor-Leste Case Study are listed below:
• Provide an overview of Water Security for each Municipality in AWDO Dimensions.
• Assist development of a National Water Resources Management Policy and an implementation framework.
• Support a Cell (to be established within the Ministry of Public works), to implement the National
• Make clear recommendations on governmental and private sector actions to be taken (policies,
institutional changes, investments, priority setting, etc.).
• Assist Municipalities to identify strategic investments to mitigate water insecurity without
duplication or omission.
• Be a communication, analytical and policy tool on Water Security among the Municipalities and provide
a basis for comparison with each other Provinces
• Guide trailing ones to become water secure by guiding policy and institutional reforms
• To support Resident Missions of International Financial Institutions to revise Country Partner
In addition to meeting the above specific objectives, the case study is expected to contribute to AWDO
2020 as below:
• Test the applicability of the AWDO 2020 methodology to their case (country, state, river basin) and
where needed adjust that methodology to make it more suitable for their case;
• Add spatial detail in their application by identifying smaller units (administrative, river basins,
etc.), show the KD performances of these smaller units and draw conclusions on the differences between
Scope of Work
The Asian Water Development Outlook (AWDO) was initiated by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the
Asia-Pacific Water Forum (APWF) to highlight the status of water security in the Asia-Pacific region.
Three editions of the outlook report have been published in 2007, 2013 and 2016 respectively. AWDO 2007
underlined the need to address Water Security (WS) with a broader perspective than traditional sector-
focused approaches. AWDO 2013 provided the first quantitative and comprehensive view of water security
in the countries of Asia and the Pacific. AWDO 2016 extended the methodology, updated the scores and
showed the progress made between 2013 and 2016.
The fourth edition of AWDO is planned for publication in 2020. To refine the methodology resulting in
greater confidence in water security assessments, the Water Sector Group (WSG) at ADB has initiated work
of the fourth edition of the AWDO (AWDO 2020).
AWDO distinguishes five Key Dimensions (KDs) that together determine the Water Security score. The five
KDs are Rural Household WS (KD1), Economic WS (KD2), Urban WS (KD3), Environmental WS (KD4) and
Resilience to Water-related Disasters (KD5).
For each of the five KDs, a KD-team had been established that is supporting ADB in further developing
the methodology for AWDO 2020. In addition, a team will be established to develop a data repository for
AWDO. This data repository team might be combined with one of the KD-teams.
In addition to the five KD-teams, input to AWDO 2020 will be provided by OECD on Water Governance and
Financing in relation to WS. Furthermore, AWDO will be applied to assess water security at country,
provincial and/or river basins scale to reflect unique spatial and sectoral details. AWDO country study
for Thailand is nearing completion, while studies are planned for , Timor-Leste and India (Karnataka
ADB Timor-Leste Resident Mission (TLRM) will provide suitable support to carry out the case study with
the support of ADB Water Sector Group based in Manila. TLRM will review the research reports, which will
lead to the preparation of: (i) Progress reports and presentations on their case study; and (ii)
contribute to reports and presentations of AWDO 2020.
Detailed Tasks and/or Expected Output
The AWDO 2020 preparation project will be carried out in four phases:
• Phase I – Inception/work plan phase
• Phase II – Development of methodology, data collection, and initial results
• Phase III – Finalization of methodology and assessment
• Phase IV – Finalization of Case studies and contribution to the AWDO2020 report.
Meetings will be organized with all teams (KDs, Country Cases, and OECD) to discuss progress, identify
issues and make decisions on the activities for the subsequent phase. Overall, the consultant will work
in close collaboration with Timorese local counterparts, relevant national and sub-national stakeholder,
and public authorities with the support of the TLRM.
Phase I: Inception phase: The Team will carry out an extensive review of:
o the literature on water security assessment related to all five KDs in Timor-Leste.
o the literature on SDG synthesis and assessment related to Timor-Leste
o Other country water security assessment methodologies. Possible examples are Thailand, India, PRC,
Mongolia, and Bhutan.
o Assess the applicability of AWDO 2020 Methodology for each KD to apply at Municipality scale,
identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology.
o Water Governance with the support of ADB Water Sector Group and the OECD governance team
o Based on this assessment and if needed, propose changes to the methodology that will make it more
Subsequently, the Case team will develop a work plan to quantify (score) the KDs for Timor-Leste and the
identified sub-units. The work plan should address:
o the links with the SDGs;
o links with Governance and Finance in collaboration with the OECD teams; and
o how to deal with transboundary surface and groundwater
Phase II: Development methodology, data collection, and preliminary results. The team will apply their
methodology, collect the data and produce preliminary KD scores for Timor-Leste for the present (2020)
situation at the Municipality level. Phase II will conclude with an interim report that discusses the
methodology, data used and the results. The interim report should also discuss the issues encountered
and solutions applied.
Phase III: Finalization of methodology and assessment: The Team will finalize the determination of KD
scores, using the agreed methodology. Phase III will conclude by making a draft final report that
discusses the final results for the present situation, and the narratives on the projections 2030 and
Phase IV: Finalization of the Report Reports prepared by the Team will be reviewed by ADB and revised
Minimum Qualification Requirements
The Senior Water Resource Management Specialist should ideally have the following qualifications: (i)
post-graduate qualifications in water resources management and/or governance; (ii) at least 15 years’
experience in water resources research in Asia; (iii) knowledge of the AWDO methodology regarding the
various dimension of water security in conditions comparable to Timor Leste; (iv) motivation,
willingness and adequate experience to work directly with the government agencies; ang (v) proficiency
Minimum General Experience: 15 years
Minimum Specific Experience (relevant to assignment): 10 years
Regional/country Experience: Required.
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