Consultancy to Conduct Knowledge, Attitude & Practices Survey on Masculinities in the Lower Mekong




Date:  23-Nov-2022



Program:                  Oxfam Mekong Regional Water Governance Program (MRWGP)

Project:                     Oxfam Australia Unrestricted Fund

Activity:                     Consultancy service to conduct KAP survey on masculinities in regionusal water governance policy and practice in the Mekong region

Content:                    Conduct survey on knowledge, attitudes and practices on masculinities under water governance in lower Mekong region to propose opportunities for future impact interventions of MRWGP

Duration:                   2 months (within the duration of December 2022 – February 2023)

Oxfam is committed to preventing any type of unwanted behaviour at work including sexual harassment, exploitation and abuse, lack of integrity and financial misconduct; and committed to promoting the welfare of children, young people and adults. Oxfam expects all staff and volunteers to share this commitment through our code of conduct. We place a high priority on ensuring that only those who share and demonstrate our values are recruited to work for us.

Shaping a stronger Oxfam for people living in poverty.

  1. Background

More than 60 million people live in the Mekong basin; the wider Mekong region is home to more than 340 million. The rivers and their tributaries are not just vital for agriculture and fisheries, they are also being developed and exploited for energy. Particularly the poor rely on the rivers’ resources for their food and livelihoods. The Mekong River basin rates amongst the most threatened biodiversity hotspots globally. More and more people are losing their livelihoods in the Mekong region. The cause lies in the influx of new dams and increasing water extraction for cities, industry, and agriculture. This puts extreme pressure on the rivers, forests, watersheds, wetland systems and aquatic ecosystems which many communities rely on.

The Oxfam Mekong Regional Water Governance Program (MRWGP) is a regional program operating at multiple levels  which aims to realise the rights of women and men in rural areas along the Mekong, Salween Rivers to secure and sustainable livelihoods. It is implemented in Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. The aim of the project is that target government and private sector actors at the national and regional levels engage with and include the perspectives of civil society in hydro-power and renewable energy policies and plans. The project also aims to strengthen civil society organizations’ capacity and the leadership of women and representatives from marginalized groups to influence water governance and renewable energy decision making. The program has been in operation since 2014 with funding from several sources, including the Australian and Swiss governments, and Oxfam Australia. Strategic priorities of MRWGP are: Inclusion; Gender equality and women’s leadership in Water Governance; Civil Society capacity and networking; Community Based Natural Resources Management; and Hydropower and Sustainable Energy.

Gender integration is recognized as an essential crosscutting theme and a priority of the MRWGP. Numerous research studies and documents have been published about gender and water. Many water policies mention women and most of donor-funded projects have gender components, or most recently GEDSI – Gender Equality, Disability and Social Inclusion. Ministries in, the Mekong countries have developed specific policies on gender. In spite of the fact that gender issues and inclusion have gained more attention,  in the water governance and renewable energy sector, men still remain the dominating force. There is not much information available on the construction of gendered power and hegemonic masculinities, although understanding more on gender issues and deconstructing masculinity in the water and energy sector can increase the chances of water governance becoming more gender transformative and inclusive.

MRWGP itself has conducted a state of knowledge survey in 2020 on the situation of women in river and water governance across the Mekong region as a result of the first Women and Rivers Congress roadmap for collective action to protect rivers. It explores the status of women and the roles they play or should play in managing the region’s key rivers, including the Lancang-Mekong and Nu-Salween, and ways to ensure that they are able to participate effectively in water-related decision-making. The report discusses key aspects relevant to women’s role and how these factors relate to the transformative journey of women and their leadership in river governance. The key findings from the report were presented and discussed during the first online webinar series as part of Asia Women and River Congress in June 2020.

In such context, MRWGP is looking for a consultant to undertake a KAP survey on Masculinities in Water Governance policy and practice in the Lower Mekong region. We are looking for more information on the context, concepts, misunderstanding, obstacles to project activities and barriers to behavioral change,.  that could influence gender justice in the Mekong region.

  1. Objectives

The objectives of undertaking this KAP survey are to:

  • Provide or measure the extensive analysis of the current situation (such as context, concepts, misunderstanding, obstacles to the activities that we would like to implement and potential barriers to behavior change, gaps between what is said and what is done, etc.) of masculinities in policies and practices in the Lower Mekong countries in Water Governance works/programmings.
  • Enhance information on the knowledge attitude, and practices of men in the  water governance sector towards gender and social inclusion.
  • Identify knowledge gaps, gauge the gendered and social perceptions, cultural beliefs or behavioral patterns, policy and practices that create barriers to equal participation and exclusion in water governance development processes and programmes.
  • Identify key opportunities, actors and entry points to make an impact on gender and inclusion in regional water governance
  • Identify clear next steps that the MRWGP could support and facilitate, particularly at the regional level, to capitalize on the identified opportunities. 
  1. Scope of the survey

The survey will need to explore information to answer these following questions:

  • Knowledge: What do people (men, women, diverse gender, youth) know about male dominance, patriarchal mindset, gender discrimination and privilege of men comparing to other genders?
  • Attitude: What are the perception of ability, role and contribution of men and that comparing to women in water governance are? What are the underlying social and gender-based perceptions for those perception? What are the underlying factors that restrict or encourage power of men over other genders?
  • Practices: What are the practices of individual, family, communities and workplace toward men’s participation, ability and leadership in water governance in relation to women? What are the social norms, social and cultural practices and behaviours, mechanism and legal system, policies that are considered to barriers or motivation to male/female leadership in water governance?
  • Opportunities: What are the opportunities, key actors and effective approach to address toxic masculinities and improve gender equality in water governance?

Scope of the survey

Conduct key stakeholder interviews (on-line and/or off line) in five countries  – Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar utilising locally based consultants, and related regional stakeholders. Oxfam staff can facilitate access to informants (e.g. suggest persons and contact details) and provide their own analysis – but it is expected that the consultants schedule the meeting and interviews with informants independently.

The Reference group the stakeholders actors for the focused interview might include, but not limited to:

  • Energy planning and decision-making actors (e.g. energy ministries, national utilities, regulatory bodies, etc) in the Mekong region
  • Regional Institutions and initiatives (e.g. LMC, MRC, Mekong-US Partnership, etc)
  • International Financial Institutions (e.g. AIIB, ADB, WB)
  • Govts supporting regional water and energy programs in the Mekong (AUS, US, SDC, China)
  • Private sectors actors including solar and wind companies or sector associations operating in Mekong countries.
  • Chinese Embassy in each Mekong countries
  • Grassroot communities/groups/networks (e.g. Fishery Communities, community based water management group (CBWM), youth group, mass organizations, etc.)

Suggested methodology of the survey

  • Literature review and analysis including secondary data collection
  • In-depth interviews with key stakeholders
  • Key informants/stakeholders interview to triangulate the secondary data analysis and findings.
  • FGD with different groups of men and women with different features such as age, generation, ethnic groups, etc.
  • Semi-structure interviews with women and men who hold position as community leaders
  1. Deliverables

The consultancy provider(s) need to do following scope of work:

  • Conducting the survey, including but not limited to Constructing the survey protocol; Preparing work for the survey; Course of the KAP survey in the field; Review of documents, Meetings with internal and external stakeholders; Data analysis and presentation of the survey report
  • Present the final products during a launching report and/or sharing event (internal Oxfam and external such as donor, partners, peers etc.)


  • A full survey report on the masculinities in water governance policy and practices in the lower Mekong region (which need to cover all the objectives mentioned in part 2 of this documents) (around 30-40 pages max in English).

Summaries of themes and lessons from the literature review detailing key regional and national decision-making drivers, structure and actors in water and energy governance in the Mekong region could be the annexes to the report.

(The recommendations in the report should provide, but not limited to, specific suggestions to sectors such as fishery sector Community water management policy and practice that minimize the risk of masculinity expression that have implication to women’s participation and involvement in decision-making processes. The recommendation from the survey report will be used to inform or recommend to Ministry of Environment on their women leadership work in CPA, Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy on their process to Development Basin Strategy; and MRWGP’s partners in taking into account the different characteristic of masculinity which undermine women’s leadership role)

  • An executive summary review report with key findings and suggestions (with infographics, around 3-4 pages, in English)
  • A PowerPoint Presentation of the report summarizing key findings for presenting the report to the audience.
  • Two (2) – three (3) case studies (which provide more practical on what characteristic of masculinity that found in community fishery, community-based water management (CBWM))

Tentative timelines:

6 – 12 Dec 2022Final consultancy contract (for 2 months of contract duration) from successful applicant/consultantOxfam PMUConsultant
12 – 30 Dec 2022Prepare for the survey (method, tools, logistic, etc.)Conduct the survey in the fieldConsultant 
30 Dec 2022 – 15 Jan 2023Data analysisDrafting/writing survey reportReviewing and finalizing the survey report/deliverablesConsultantOxfam PMU
16 – 31 Jan 2023Preparing and conduct the launching report eventConsultant
31 Jan 2023 – 10 Feb 2023Contract liquidationOxfam PMUConsultant
  1. Qualifications & experience
  • Master’s Degree qualification in Gender Studies/Masculinities, Environmental Management, Water Governance or related field, and significant experience working on gender policies and strategies in the Mekong region.
  • Proven experience in research capacity
  • Knowledge of existing gender tools, KAP survey (available globally and in the Mekong region relevant to water governance) and understanding of ways to mainstream these in existing water governance frameworks and platforms in the region.
  • Demonstrated knowledge and experience in masculinities, gender issues, and in the issues faced by women to participate and lead in decision making on water governance.
  • Experience and knowledge of water governance policies in the Lower Mekong Countries is added value.   
  • Experienced to strategically identify policy influencing opportunities and develop feasible programming recommendations. 
  • Fluent in written and spoken English skills.
  1. Others
  • Required to adhere to Oxfam’s principles (including the feminist principles) and values as well as the promotion of gender justice and women’s rights.
  • Understanding of and commitment to adhere to equity, diversity, gender, child safety and staff health and wellbeing principles.
  1. Organizational Values
  • Accountability – Our purpose-driven, results-focused approach means we take responsibility for our actions and hold ourselves accountable. We believe that others should also be held accountable for their actions.
  • Empowerment – Our approach means that everyone involved with Oxfam, from our staff and supporters to people living in poverty, should feel they can make change happen.
  • Inclusiveness – We are open to everyone and embrace diversity. We believe everyone has a contribution to make, regardless of visible and invisible differences.
  1.  Application

The applicant is expected to submit:

  • Detailed proposal (describing the previous work done in this area and afore-mentioned expertise; and proposed your methodology and plan for this assignment)
  • CVs of the relevant individuals and/or organization profile
  • Estimated budget for this assignment accompanied with a cost breakdown, showing days or hours spent (per relevant individuals involved) and the related fees (the consultancy fee should be mentioned in net fees in US Dollars, which is subject to 15% withholding tax for resident taxpayer or 14% withholding tax for non-resident taxpayer). This fee should be inclusive of all costs except Withholding Tax. Withholding Tax will borne by Oxfam in Cambodia

The applicant is expected to submit the application through the recruitment website: 
by December 13, 2022 at 23.59 GMT+7.

For any questions, please write in to

Only short-listed candidates will be contacted





IHE Delft MSc in Water and Sustainable Development