Terms of Reference
Action Against Hunger, also known as ACF, is an international humanitarian organisation committed to ending world hunger. Recognized as a leader in the fight against under-nutrition, Action Against Hunger | ACF International saves the lives of malnourished children and women while providing communities sustainable solutions to hunger and building their resilience to effects of poverty and disasters. With more than 35 years of experience of working in emergency and disaster situations (both natural and man-made), ACF’s programs aim to save lives and provide long-term solutions to ending hunger in over 45 countries.
ACF’s over 6,500 professionals work to carry out innovative programmes in nutrition, water, sanitation, & hygiene, disaster risk reduction/management and food security & livelihoods. ACF’s humanitarian programmes directly assist over seven million people each year as well as countless others indirectly, through capacity building in collaboration with government ministries. Committed to principled humanitarian action, ACF restores dignity, self-sufficiency, and independence among vulnerable populations around the world. Our comprehensive solutions to global hunger are context-specific, needs-based, and customized through direct community participation.
In Pakistan, ACF has strong presence in both Sindh and KP and has its own network of more than 3000 Community Nutrition Volunteers (CNVs); these have been trained by ACF and now work on voluntary basis to identify, refer and prevent malnutrition at the community level. Presently, ACF has projects operational in Districts Dadu, Matiari, Ghotki and Khairpur (Sindh) and Nowshera, Charsadda, Lower Dir and Upper Dir (KP). In the recent past, ACF has also worked in Kashmore, Jacobabad, Thatta, Tando Muhammad Khan, Badin and Sujawal (Sindh) and Peshawar, Hangu, Kohat, Mardan and Karak districts (KP) as well as FATA.
The looming threat of water scarcity is an issue that is rarely talked about in Pakistani politics, and yet it constitutes one of the biggest challenges to Pakistan’s survival. With a projected population of 263 million in the year 2050 (United Nations 2012), Pakistan needs to put serious thought into how it will provide adequate water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption in the face of rapidly dwindling reserves. The Himalayan glacier, whose ice melt replenishes the Indus River’s annual freshwater, is receding by about one meter – the approximate equivalent of 3.3 feet – per year due to global warming. This phenomenon has had a staggering impact on Pakistan’s water availability. In just 1950, Pakistan had around 5,000 m3 per capita per year of freshwater resources. In 2002, its supplies shrunk to only 1,500 m3. To put that number in perspective, around 1,000 m3 is when a country is declared water scarce.
The War on Terror, as well as the 2010 flood, has displaced two million people from Pakistan’s countryside, many of whom have flocked to urban centers such as Karachi. As a result, Pakistan must also increase water availability and sanitation in urban centers to accommodate this massive influx of people, in addition to tackling its water scarcity issue. One figure states that around 40-55 million Pakistanis do not have regular access to drinking water and around 630 Pakistani children die each day to the waterborne illness of diarrhea.
The mismanagement of water will have its biggest impact on Pakistan’s agricultural sector. According to the World Bank, 43% of Pakistan’s employment is in the agricultural sector. This prosperous industry relies on the single largest contiguous irrigation system in the world. While this is an impressive feat, Pakistan also fosters one of the lowest crop yields per unit of water in the world. This is alarming because Pakistan uses a whopping 97% of its water resources on its agriculture industry. The fact is Pakistan has some of the worst malnutrition rates in South Asia. The National Nutrition Survey (NNS) compiled by the Ministry of Health and Aga Khan University (September 2011 ) indicates in Sindh province a Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) rate of 17.5% and a Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) rate of 6.6% among children under five years (U5). The prevalence of GAM exceeded the emergency threshold of 15% according to WHO categorization. In addition, the prevalence of chronic malnutrition is critically high among U5 children in Sindh, i.e. prevalence of stunting is 49.8%, and underweight is 40.5%, making them increasingly vulnerable to disease and at high risk of impaired intellectual and physical development. Pakistan is a country, which is required to double its annual food production every 15 years, in order to maintain its statuesque in meeting requirements of food. This target, on the surface, may not look so demanding, as the country is bestowed with enough fertile and productive lands and sufficient freshwater-resources. Despite the availability of these basic resources, unfortunately the country has to import large quantities of food commodities every year. Water scarcity, floods, droughts, and domestic mismanagement can embitter interethnic relations and prompt political tension, which can in turn lead to violence. Understanding water availability, allocation mechanisms, and demand is critical to understanding national management challenges and security threats. The current water policy approach is oriented in supply-side interventions, and the overall ethos favors engineering megaprojects, a bias reflected in policy and in donor appeals. This approach only veils the problem of water use inefficiencies.
ACF Pakistan mission water strategy: ACF five year strategy (2016-2020) focus on overall environment management with particular focus on water resources for drinking and for other human consumption. Water – a strategic and core priority within ACF – we understand that malnutrition cannot be fought without tackling the waterborne diseases that contribute to it. As part of our integrated approach to fighting hunger, we bring safe water, sanitation, and hygiene services to communities in need all over the world. This involves extending water and sanitation services to communities faced with water scarcity, unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation & poor hygiene; thereby improving access to availability of clean and safe water for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene. We truck water into affected communities during emergencies, decontaminate wells, install hand-pumps and rehabilitate damaged infrastructure to ensure access to adequate sources of clean water. We build latrines and introduce basic sanitation infrastructure to keep communities hygienic along with building capacities of government authorities and linking them with communities. We also train community-based water committees to manage their water and sanitation infrastructure themselves, and organize village health teams to model good sanitation and hygiene practices for their communities long after we leave an area. Under FSL programming, ACF focuses on increasing food either through grain crops development or livestock improvement. Again, water is essential component of these activities and shall be given equal priority.
ACF Pakistan mission is commissioning this study to understand water dynamics including water policies, institution and water distribution issues in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Sind provinces.
1. Goal of Consultancy
The overall goal of this consultancy is to provide comprehensive water governance analysis and recommendation for ACF Pakistan mission consideration
3.1 Specific Objective
· To study international, regional and national frameworks, commitments, policies and approaches pertaining to the use of fresh water for drinking, agricultural and other purposes.
· Asses’ local institutions and user-based associations in terms of their capacity and commitment to address Governance issues in the water sector.
· To assess whether the state water policies are pro-poor in-terms enabling them accessing adequate safe water for multiple uses and make appropriate for the program
· Study the current state of Public Private Partnerships in water supply at both national and state level and how this will shape up in future to improve access to safe by the poor.
· Achievements, lessons learned and good practices in ensuring women’s access to water as a productive resource, and in fostering their equal participation in water governance systems and emerging gaps both at state and National levels
· On the basis of the analysis, the report will highlight ACF’s comparative advantage and priority areas for action to fill existing gaps.
a. Connected with “Legal and institutional frame relevance, decentralization of the water services”
Highlight areas of advocacy that the mission can take forward to influence on service delivery for the needy communities linked to legal and institutional framework.
b. Connected with “Equity between rich and poor”
The study should point out hindrances in achieving equity between rich and poor as well as possible solutions/approaches. The research should identify strategies that can be used to promote equity of water access for all either through advocacy or suggestion on improvement on pro-poor approach. Input from community is required from the community themselves on why there is gap between rich and poor.
c. Connected with “Appropriation of the services by the community”
The research should identify the role of community in service delivery vis a vis the current changes in the legal framework. It will also be critical to provide strategies that would ensure improved community governance necessary for sustainable water management. The study should identify a good example of community governance and some of the lessons learnt on where it has not worked and suggestions on what to build on.
3. Time Frame:
a) The duration of the study is three months starting Nov 15th , 2016 to Feb 15th , 2017
4. Logistics and facilitation:
b) ACF to facilitate visa (in case require) and provide accommodation for international applicants
c) ACF will facilitate international consultant with the recruitment of local position
7. Supervisory Responsibility
This consultancy is managed by the ACF Pakistan. All substantial changes to the scope should be agreed in advance with ACF Pakistan Technical Coordinator and New York Pakistan Technical Pool.
8 . SCOPE OF THE CONSULTANCY
Users of the consultancy
Country Director, Field Coordinator, Technical Team, Support Team
Local Partners, donors
- Expected results
The result of this evaluation should be presented in a written report and through several oral presentations:
· One on the mission
· One at HQ (in person or via teleconference).
10. GENERAL REPORT
At the end of the consultancy in PAKISTAN, the consultant will have to produced a final report. It will include an executive summary as well as sections on the background and context, the methodology of work, all analyses, relevant models and descriptions of diets calculated, (including their costs and affordability) and recommendations that can be used to direct future integrated programming.
In addition to the written report, the consultant will share findings with ACF and other stakeholders at the national level.
The report shall follow the following format.
· Cover Page
· Table of Contents
· Executive Summary: must be a standalone summary, describing the programme, main findings of the evaluation, and conclusions and recommendations. This will be no more than 2 pages in length.
Main Body: The main body of the report shall elaborate the points listed in the Executive Summary. It will include references to the methodology used for the evaluation and the context of the action. In particular, for each key conclusion there should be a corresponding recommendation. Recommendations should be as realistic, operational and pragmatic as possible; that is, they should take careful account of the circumstances currently prevailing in the context of the action, and of the resources available to implement it both locally and in the commissioning HQ. Annexes: Listed and correctly numbered. Format for the main body of the report is:
Findings & Discussions
PROFILE OF THE CONSULTANT.
Qualified Candidates will possess the following:
· Excellent knowledge and internationally recognized expertise in issues related to gender, water management and governance, and food security.
· Minimum 7 years of relevant professional experience in the field of Governance, water, natural resources management or food security.
· Advanced university degree in Policy studies, Research, Development, Natural Resources/ Water Management, Economics, Business Administration Studies e.t.c.
· Demonstrated excellent written and spoken English.
· Demonstrated excellent research, analytical and writing skills.
· Demonstrated excellent ability to work independently and produce high quality reports in short time
· To have an insurance policy, and details of the coverage to be shared with ACF before departure.
· The consultant is responsible for ensuring he/she has a valid visa before entering PAKISTAN:
o The consultant is responsible for acquiring and paying for their entry visa(s) to PAKISTAN prior to arrival. The cost of the visa(s) will be reimbursed by ACF PAKISTAN, upon presentation of receipt(s). An invitation letter will be provided and paid for by ACF PAKISTAN to assist the consultant in acquiring the entry visa. Be aware the PAKISTAN visa process can be long and requests anticipation (1 to 3 weeks for invitation letter, up to 2 weeks for the visa itself).
o If there is no PAKISTAN Embassy in the consultant’s country of residence, the mission will be responsible for acquiring and paying for the entry visa (visa volant). The process for acquiring a visa volant is complicated and time consuming.
· His or her own computer.
· The Consultant is responsible for any and all administrative costs that do not derive from ACF’s responsibility (for example: passport renewal, photos, penalties or administrative fees related to prior stays in PAKISTAN, among others.)
· The Consultant is responsible to cover the costs of his or her food during the stay in PAKISTAN. If meals are taken at the ACF guesthouses, then the Consultant will have to reimburse ACF based on the daily rate for the corresponding ACF base.
· The accommodation in PAKISTAN will be provided for and covered by ACF. Transport in PAKISTAN and the other costs directly related to the consultancy (daily workers, local translator, etc.) will be covered by ACF
The ownership of the draft and final documentation belong to the agency and the funding donor exclusively. The document, or publication related to it, will not be shared with anybody except ACF before the delivery by ACF of the final document to the donor.
ACF is to be the main addressee of the evaluation and its results might impact on both operational and technical strategies. This being said, ACF is likely to share the results of the evaluation with the following groups:
· Governmental partners
· Various co-ordination bodies
- Intellectual Property Rights
All documentation related to the Assignment (whether or not in the course of the consultant’s duties) shall remain the sole and exclusive property of ACF.
Interested parties must submit their applications by email referenced under title;
Pakistan water governance consultancy
Deadline for submission: Friday 28th October 2016 at 17.00 (GMT+3).
Consultants are requested to submit a proposal with a cover letter and must mention their expected total remuneration for this assignment.
Applications should include:
A proposal to the above Terms of Reference including, schedule, budget.
A financial offer including daily fees in US Dollars
Up-to-date curriculum vitae(s) of the lead consultant and relevant team members (if any),
Evidence of past experience in undertaking similar assignments (three most recent documents preferred) of similar works done,
Three (3) references of previous assignments.
Only shortlisted applications will be contacted.
The final selection will be done by Action Against Hunger USA
For more information, prospective consultants may contact Monday to Friday between 9am and 5pm (GMT+3) at the following email address or by phone:
Email: [email protected].