WASH Formative Research and Social Behaviors Change (SBC) Strategy in Azraq Camp via ReliefWeb

Action Contre La Faim (ACF)

Azraq, Jordan 🇯🇴

1. Background

Since 2015, Action Against Hunger has been working to ensure water security and meet basic water, hygiene and sanitation needs for 39,638 Syrian refugees across Azraq camp. Over the last two years, there has been an increasing focus on developing a community mobilization approach to sustain and reinforce WASH behaviours. The importance of this has been reinforced over the last year, with COVID-19 highlighting the vulnerability of camp residents to disease transmission given a lack of hygiene supplies, close living quarters and shared WASH facilities. However, as funding for Azraq camp has seen a significant drop in recent years, WASH activities have been minimized and are inadequate to meet current needs

While in Azraq camp, the water supply available now meets minimum standards, concerns around water use remains, with informal shelter level connections and vandalism of shared WASH infrastructure persistent. This has led to increasing demand of water, the erosion of the water supply, weak water pressure in areas across the water network, and the inequitable availability of this scarce resource due to different geographic pressures. Highlighted in addition, is the reluctance of the camp population to participate in WASH governance structure and communally manage available resources. In this context, it remains critical to promote water management and reuse practices, in order to promote individual responsibility and empower refugees to take accountability for the use of the water network.

To further promote optimal hygiene, sanitation, water use, and climate-resilient practices, ACF has been working since 2017 on a community mobilization strategy led by its network of WASH volunteers. To date, ACF is working with a network of WASH volunteers of 750 Lead Mothers (LMs), 65 WASH Community Representatives (WCRs), and 130 Youth WASH Community Representatives (YWCR) in the camp. Through this experience in community mobilization, ACF sees the need for an expanded community-driven behaviour change approach in order to achieve long-term objectives related to WASH.

During 2022 and beyond, ACF will use its long-standing experience in the camp to strengthen the delivery of WASH community mobilization activities and increase the effective capacity and function of the community governance structures. This will primarily extend to the implementation of behaviour change initiatives aimed at reducing vandalism, addressing challenges associated with menstrual hygiene, and promoting the adoption of water management practices, rather than the knowledge of those practices themselves. In addition, ACF will focus on enhancing community ownership of WASH services, their engagement in planning and maintenance, and promote a more accountable and coordinated WASH response.

Specifically the formative research seeks to:

  1. Identify the main ways to improve WASH outcomes such as latrine cleanliness, maintenance of private latrines, menstrual hygiene management, water reuse, water conservation and vandalisms of water networks and WASH facilities in the camp.
  2. Understand the reasons why there is reluctance to participate in WaSH community structures and how to enhance the effectiveness of these structures to manage, plan and inform the WaSH service in the camp. In addition to understand the existing community structures in the camp and the dynamics between these structures and the WaSH actors in the camp
  3. Provide recommendations towards the design of behavior change activities that promote optimal water use, water conservation and hygiene practices (including menstrual hygiene management), mitigate the vandalisms of the WaSH infrastructures, and enhance the community ownership of WaSH services and resources in the camp.

A comprehensive SBCC strategy is considered a key tool to ensure ACF’s WASH programming in Azraq enhances community ownership of WASH services, and leads to improved hygiene, water conservation and menstrual health practices. To inform the SBCC strategy, ACF will conduct formative research assessment to assess barriers and enables that impact community engagement in WASH services, hygiene, water conservation, and menstrual health behaviours. This includes a better understand the socio-cultural norms, practices, perceptions, and attitudes that impact the behaviours studied and the effectiveness of community WASH governance structures.

The main objective of this assessment is to provide recommendations for the design of a behaviour change strategy to promote community ownership, responsibility, and commitment to WASH services provided in the camp; and optimal water use, water conservation, and hygiene practices (including menstrual hygiene management).

2. Purpose of the Consultancy

Action Against Hunger Jordan is seeking a consultant to support the completion of its formative research process, develop a SBC strategy (including the facilitation of an in-country workshop) and build the capacity of its Azraq WASH team to take a behavioral approach to their design, and implementation WASH activities. The intention is to ensure the consultant, as part of this process, develops the capacity of key staff within the mission to understand SBC programming and approaches though a co-facilitated approach.

3. Specific Tasks

The consultant is expected to complete the following tasks over the course and duration of the consultancy:

  1. Review, update and strengthen the desk review for the formative research
  2. Develop an assessment framework and support the MEAL department in developing a coding approach for the data
  3. Work with the MEAL team to conduct enumerator training, synthesise and analyse data
  4. Draft and finalize the formative assessment report, ensuring feedback received from Action Against Hunger Jordan and Region and HQ technical focal points. This includes a validation workshop
  5. Based on the formative research design a SBC strategy covering the key technical areas and themes identified. This strategy should include but not be limited to a summary of research findings, an overview of social, cultural and gendered norms related to key WASH behaviours, a conceptual framework and theory of change for the strategy, and defined communication channels (including key messages, audiences, activities and approaches) that are segmented for each participant group
  6. Plan and facilitate a consultative workshop to receive inputs from key stakeholders for the SBC strategy. This workshop will seek to validate key findings and approaches
  7. Revise and finalise the SBC strategy based on the outcomes of the workshop and feedback received
  8. Through guidance, close coaching, regular reflection and training, build the capacity of the Azraq WASH project team, MEAL department and technical WASH and MHPSS Heads of Department to confidently apply SBC approach to develop, design and use SBC tools
  9. Timeline and Key Deliverables

The work is expected to take 25 working days to be completed between September – November 2022

4. Outputs :

Review, update and strengthen the desk review for the formative research (2 days)

Develop an assessment framework and coding approach for the formative research (1 days)

Work with the MEAL and WASH team to train enumerators for data collection and analyze primary data (3 days)

Draft and finalize the formative assessment report including a validation workshop (6 days)

Design a SBC strategy covering the key technical areas and themes identified (4 days)

Plan and facilitate a consultative workshop to receive inputs from key stakeholders for the SBC strategy (2 days)

Revise and finalize the SBC strategy based on the outcomes of the workshop and feedback received (2 days)

Develop training content and work with SBCC Specialist to lead training sessions on SBC and proposed strategy approaches and interventions (4 days)

Review, revise and update the monitoring and evaluation framework for the project based on the strategy (1 days)

5. Work Arrangements

Under the supervision of the Deputy Country Director Programs, and in consultation with the Regional WASH and MHPSS Technical Advisors, the consultant is expected work remotely and in person through a field deployment to complete their assignment.

6. Profile of the Lead Consultant:

  • Post-graduate degree in social and behaviour sciences or related field
  • A minimum of 7 years of professional experience implementing SBC approaches and strategy with demonstrated application in WASH and health-related humanitarian and development programs
  • Extensive experience designing and conducting formative research, managing research teams, and developing MEAL tools
  • Excellent interpersonal and communication skills, including strong facilitation skills and the ability navigate a broad range of stakeholders
  • Ability to produce well-written high quality, technical documents
  • Demonstrated ability to build SBCC skills and capacities within program teams
  • Experience in working in the Middle East is desirable
  • Fluency in written and spoken English is required, Arabic language skills are considered an asset

How to apply

Interested parties are required to submit a technical and financial proposal for the consultancy including the following:

  1. Technical Proposal: The the lead consultant CV; contact details of at least three references; a cover letter setting out how the applicant meets the required profile and strategy development approach and methodology to be used; and copies of two relevant assessments/strategies completed earlier by the applicant.
  2. Financial Proposal: Lump-sum offer with the cost breakdown: consultancy fee. International and domestic travel required for the consultancy, the cost of workshop and meetings and data collection will be considered separately and facilitated directly by ACF.

For evaluation of the consultant, technical qualifications, experience and quality of past work with be weighted at 70%, with the financial proposal weighted at 30% based on the criteria below. A secondary interview will be conducted with preferred consultant prior to final selection.

Technical (70%)

Post-graduate degree in social and behaviour sciences or related field. A minimum of 7 years of professional experience implementing SBC approaches and strategy with demonstrated application in WASH and health-related humanitarian and development programs (15%)

Extensive experience designing and conducting formative research, developing SBCC strategies, managing research teams, and developing MEAL tools (20%)

Ability to produce well-written high quality, technical documents (15%)

Demonstrated ability to build SBCC skills and capacities within program teams (15%)

Experience in working in the Middle East is desirable, Fluency in written and spoken English is required, Arabic language skills are considered an asset (5%)

Financial (30%)

Applicants should submit a complete expression of interest via e-mail to [email protected] and indicate: “WASH Formative Research and Social Behaviors Change (SBC) Strategy in Azraq Camp.” in the e-mail’s subject line


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