Vietnam nationals: National Consultancy on Rapid Review of the Financing for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Hanoi, Vietnam
Position Type: 
Organization Type: 
International Organization
Experience Level: 
10+ Years
Degree Required: 
Advanced Degree (Master's or JD)
Languages Required: 
English and Vietnamese


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Viet Nam has made significant progress in increasing coverage of water supply and sanitation over the recent years. In 2016, 90.7 and 83.3 per cent of the population had access to improved water and toilet respectively[1]. However, only 47 percent of the ethnic minority population had access to improved water. Regarding access to improved toilet, the rate among ethnic minorities was 45.3 per cent compared to 89.4 per cent among the majority (Kinh and Hoa)[2]. In addition, 2 out of every 5 households in the Mekong Delta use hanging latrines that releases excreta directly to the water. Thus over 12 million people discharge excreta into their immediate vicinity, of which 6 million are defecating in open fields and another 6 million in water[3]. Only 13 per cent of the population wash their hands with soap at key moments, and among the ethnic minority groups. fewer people practice hand washing[4].

The lack of access to water and sanitation and poor hygiene practices contribute to high rates of diarrhea, pneumonia and parasitic infections. Diarrhea and pneumonia cause 10 per cent and 12 per cent of under-five child mortality respectively. One-third of children’s deaths in Viet Nam attributes to malnutrition which is closely linked with frequent incidences of diarrhea and nematode infections[5]. This has particularly led to the high rate of stunting which is major problem in Viet Nam. Over a quarter of under-five Vietnamese children are stunted as a result of diarrhea, nematode infection and environmental enteropathy, apart from the cause of poor feeding practices[6]. Stunting remains high at over 30 percent among children within ethnic minorities[7]. This difference in height is irreversible and affects children’s cognitive development and future productive potential.

In this context, the Government of Viet Nam’s (GoV) has demonstrated its commitment to the Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) global partnership to eliminate open defecation by the year 2025 and to secure safe drinking water for all by the year 2030 as part of the targets under the sustainable development goals# 6.1 and 6.2. It is estimated that Viet Nam will need to spend about 1.2 per cent of its GDP to reach the unserved population under these SDG targets from 2015 until 2030 and 0.3 per cent of GDP to maintain the served population as of 2015[8].  However, investment in the water supply and sanitation sectors has been growing by roughly 0.2% of GDP per annum. Despite an anticipated increased investment to 0.4% of GDP, Viet Nam will still not be on track to achieve the government’s water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector targets for 2020[9].

In light of the importance of WASH in relation to child well-being and sustainable development in Viet Nam, the 2017-21 cooperation programme between the Government of Viet Nam and UNICEF aims to strengthen the Government capacity in scaling up sustainable coverage of water supply, sanitation and hygiene for households, schools and health facilities by improving financing in WASH sectors. Building on the 2016 study on Strengthening Equity in Sub-national WASH financing in EAP: A Synthesis Assessment, the analysis will review of Government’s budget allocation and spending and other financial sources for the WASH sector to identify critical entry point for GoV and all relevant stakeholders to discuss, explore and apply innovative mechanisms and financing options for the WASH-related sectors.

This review for financing in WASH-related sectors in Viet Nam will require an intensive research work with thorough and in-depth analysis of the GoV budget and other sources of financing, including from the public, ODA and private sector spending on WASH. Given the high workload of UNICEF’s staff and of the Government partners (Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development as well as Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Health) and the need for through consultations with these project partners, a qualified national consultant is required to conduct this review in a timely and effective manner.

Purpose and Objectives

This assignment aims at undertaking a rapid review of the financing across water, sanitation and hygiene sectors. This review will provide a snapshot of Viet Nam’s current situation of the public and other finance allocation and spending as well as gaps in those sectors. This exercise serves the following purposes:

  • Analyze  budget allocations and utilization as well as gaps inWASH related sectors that are important for children in the most recent years (based on the data availability, proposed the fiscal years of 2016-2018) including highlight funding gaps and key challenges/issues for adequate and sustainable financing (based on government relevant planning documents-including any costed plan for WASH-related sectors, indicators and targets) and differentiate between investment budget(s), operation and maintenance budget(s) and personnel budget(s);
  • Assess equity aspects of past spending (suggested over the past three years: 2015-2017) – how the Government has subsidized the WASH sector;
  • Analyse the current financing options for the WASH-related sectors (including public, private, and household contributions) with their pros and cons for WASH in Viet Nam particularly analyzing the implications on equity. Identify additional options for optimizing state budget with leveraged funds from other sources including PPP, domestic financing, donor/government practical guarantees etc.; and
  • Propose 3-5 key messages with recommendations to inform policies on sustainable and equitable financing in WASH-related sectors. In particular, the recommendations will inform strategies to close the public finance gaps for Socio-Economic Development Strategy 2021-2030 and Socio-Economic Development Plans 2021-2025, and related sectoral and sub-national plans. The analysis will also make specific recommendations on improving Viet Nam’s PFM system towards better investment in WASH.

[1] General Statitics Office (2016) Viet Nam Household Living Standard Survey 2016

[2] The World Bank (2018) Climbing the ladder: poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Vietnam

[3] UNICEF’s Internal analysis 

[4] Vietnam General Department of Preventive Medicine/MOH and center for water supply and environmental sanitation (2016), “Survey on rural environmental sanitation in Vietnam,” Medical publishing house, Hanoi

[5] WHO (2012) Water Day Country Report

[6] WSP (2014) Policy Brief on Investing in the Next Generation: Growing Smarter and Taller with Toilets. WSP Research Brief, 2014)

[7] Vietnam Nutrition Surveillance Profiles (2015) National Institute of Nutrition

[8] UNICEF (2018) Costing exercise for SDG#6 on WASH

[9] WSP World Bank (2014) Water Supply and Sanitation in Vietnam: Turning Finance into Services for the Future

This assignment requires the recruitment of a qualified national consultant. Following is the summary of requirements for this consultant:

Qualifications and Experience

  • Post-graduate degree in public finance, economics or equivalent fields with at least 15 years of experience in public finance management, preferably with the experience in financial analysis for the WASH sector in Viet Nam.

Knowledge and Skills

  • Knowledge and experience in the socio-economic and political environment of Viet Nam and public finance management in Viet Nam. 


  • Demonstrated competencies in analysis of budgetary allocation and execution for the social sectors in Viet Nam
  • Competency in reviewing financing for the social sectors is an advantage. 


  • Excellent written and spoken English and Vietnamese.

Submission of applications:

Interested candidates are kindly requested to apply and upload the following documents to the assigned requisition in UNICEF Vacancies:

  • Letter of interest and confirmation of availability;
  • Technical proposal which clearly explains the outline on how to deliver the tasks and deliverables (preferably less than 2 pages);
  • Performance evaluation reports or references of similar consultancy assignments;
  • Financial proposal: All-inclusive lump-sum cost including consultancy fee, travel and accommodation cost for this assignment as per work assignment.
  • CV/P11 form (UN Personal History Form).

For every Child, you demonstrate…

UNICEF’s core values of Commitment, Diversity and Integrity and core competencies in Communication, Working with People and Drive for Results.

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UNICEF is committed to diversity and inclusion within its workforce, and encourages all candidates, irrespective of gender, nationality, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including persons living with disabilities, to apply to become a part of the organization.

UNICEF has a zero-tolerance policy on conduct that is incompatible with the aims and objectives of the United Nations and UNICEF, including sexual exploitation and abuse, sexual harassment, abuse of authority and discrimination. UNICEF also adheres to strict child safeguarding principles. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks, and will be expected to adhere to these standards and principles.


Mobility is a condition of international professional employment with UNICEF and an underlying premise of the international civil service.

Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted and advance to the next stage of the selection process.