Individual Consultant/Contractor for Strengthening Capacity of Government and Community on WSSP and Swajal

 (via DevNetJobsIndia)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Lucknow, India
Position Type: 
Organization Type: 
International Organization
Experience Level: 
Mid-Level (5-7 Years)
Degree Required: 
Advanced Degree (Master's or JD)


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Strengthening capacity of Government and community on WSSP and Swajal in UP

Engagement of Individual Contractor  


Since the First Five Year Plan (1951-1956), Government of India (GoI) and State governments have spent about Rs. 210,000 Crore (USD 33.13 billions) on rural drinking water. Yet, the sector is beset with problems. Nationally, only 35% of rural households are having safe source of water within their premises (Census 2011).

Access to piped water source of rural household in UP is estimated at 20.2% (census 2011) only. India will not be able to achieve SDGs, without massive reforms in drinking water supply management in UP.

Ground water sources are deteriorating, many areas are classified as water quality affected, and poor operation and maintenance (O&M) has resulted in dilapidated facilities. The causes behind this situation are to do with competing demands on scarce water resources, weak institutional governance, insufficient support structures and professional capacity at all levels. Looking at the urbanization rate of 22.8% in UP, there will be rising demand for higher quality of services to match those living in urban centers, intense competition for water from agriculture and industry, and increasing scarcity and variability of water resources due to population growth and climate change. Above all, Indian citizens, across a broad base of economic and social circumstances, are demanding transparency in “how decisions are made, how money is spent and to what end, and who the beneficiaries are”

In Uttar Pradesh (UP), as per census 2011, 95.2% of people have access to drinking water through improved sources. However, more than 74 per cent of rural people rely on hand pumps for their drinking water source that have high risks of bacterial contamination and only 20% have access to piped sources. There is no reliable source of information on the functionality of the hand pumps and piped water systems. Out of a total 820 blocks, 221 blocks in 34 districts are affected by fluoride and arsenic. Looking at the poor hygiene behaviour and rampant open defecation, bacteriological contamination of drinking water sources cannot be overruled in absence of data. Water availability and quality in Eastern UP (e.g. Acute Encephalitis Syndrome affected region), Terai and Bundelkhand regions are affected by natural hazards. As a result of poor water availability, women and young girls bear disproportionate burden of collecting water for domestic use.

The government has identified five strategic objectives for rural drinking water: i) Source Sustainability, ii) Water Quality Management, iii) Sustainable Service Delivery, iv) Strengthening Decentralized Governance and v) Building Professional Capacity, to achieve its overall objective of providing improved, sustainable drinking water services throughout the year including during natural disasters. Sustainable service delivery is also the focus of UNICEF Global WASH strategy 2016-2030.

Global lessons show that community management of drinking water services in rural areas has its limitations. We cannot expect community volunteers to be in a position to provide a ‘professional service’. The O&M of drinking water supplies in UP is further complicated by the fact that Rural Development Department is responsible for initial capital investment, while O&M responsibility is transferred to the Gram Panchayats under the Panchayati Raj Department. The latter lack institutional framework, as well as technical capacity to manage O&M issues. Though this offers great opportunity for local governments (LGs) to ensure O&M, mere transfer of responsibility to LGs is not going to improve the poor state of O&M. For sustainable service delivery, the capacity of Gram Panchayats need to be built and a system of accountability framework needs to be put in place wherein professional service providers provide the services to the satisfaction of customers, meet the national water quality standards and in lieu of that customers are charged as per level of services received.

The Panchayati Raj Department (PRD) neither has capacity nor prior experience in managing O&M based on WSSP/Swajal approach. The department has requested UNICEF for technical assistance in developing and demonstrating a sustainable WSSP/Swajal based O&M model/mechanism for rural drinking water supply in the state. UNICEF intends to engage academic institutions or private consultancy firms or any other agency with requisite experience and capacity to support PRD and other institutions in UP in designing and demonstrating the sustainable WSSP/Swajal/O&M mechanism for drinking water services.




The purpose of the assignment is to build in-house capacity of Rural Development, UP_Jal Nigam, Panchayatiraj Department and district administration in one hand and community on the other hand for undertaking comprehensive Water Safety and Security approach for sustaining rural drinking water (facilities and services) in line of drinking water SDG target 6.1.




WASH Uttar Pradesh, Output 2 (Water), Row number 22 of Excel sheet – TA Plan UP-2019.




The key objectives of the assignments are:

  • Analysis of government’s/community’s capacity gap in terms of implementation of Swajal in the framework of Water Safety and Security (WSSP)
  • Development of capacity building (internal and external) framework for implementing Swajal in the framework of WSSP
  • Developing a pool of resource persons at district (100 resource persons in 10 districts- 10 in each district) and 20 state level available to support government in implementing Swajal project
  • Supportive supervision of 100 Swajal/WSS plan in 10 districts
  • Finalization of all training/IEC materials/tools needed for effective planning, implementation and monitoring of Swajal/WSSP
  • Finalization of SOP on systematic implementation of Swajal/WSSP in UP
  • Support state level dissemination workshop and finalise complete package of WSSP Swajal implementation


Followings are the major tasks consultant is expected to accomplish during the 12 months assignment periods during 2019-2020.


Assessment of current challenges of rural drinking water sector in in terms of WSSP and Swajal in Uttar Pradesh.

  • Develop different formats for collecting primary data
  • Collection and review of primary and secondary data
  • Carryout situation analysis of the rural drinking water sectors based on secondary and primary data
  • Identify key gaps and develop response framework for addressing the gaps

Building capacity of different stakeholders in WSSP and Swajal

  • Analyze roles of different stakeholders - Rural Development, UP-Jal Nigam, Panchayati Raj Department, district administration and community and map their capacity vis a vis their expected rolls
  • Develop continued capacity development plan for different stake holders
  • Review/adapt different ICE/training materials/tools for capacity buildings
  • Develop monitoring indicators to evaluate quality training
  • Train different stakeholders (total 120 persons) on WSSP and Swajal- planning, implementation, O&M, monitoring
  • Mapp potential institutions and develop scope of collaboration with them to provide long term technical and managerial support to stake holders

Implementation of 100 Swajal/WSSP project in Uttar Pradesh

  • Provide technical support-supportive supervision to district administration and community members in planning, implementation and monitoring of the plan
  • Assess the implementation status of all Swajal/WSSP project in 10 districts and provide monthly and quarterly status to the district administration and state including UNICEF
  • Participate in the joint review meeting at state/divisional/district level and present Swajal/WSSP report cards before the government with clear actionable points expected from the government
  • Support implementation of O&M system based on PPP or community based local entrepreneurs. 

Finalization of different IEC/training/tools for WSSP/Swajal

  • Review and finalise the all old and new training/IEC materials/tools and make necessary changes to suit the current requirements
  • Develop SoP for implementation of Swajal/WSSP in scale
  • Develop cooperation document for engaging technical and academic institutions willing to support scale up plan of WSSP/Swajal