WASH and Climate Financing Analysis Consultant

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Mbabane, Eswatini 🇸🇿

Job no: 550694
Contract type: Consultancy
Duty Station: Mbabane
Level: Consultancy
Location: Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)
Categories: WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene)

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Purpose of Activity/Assignment:

Access to clean water, basic toilets, and good hygiene practices keep children thriving and gives them a healthier start in life. Growing up in a clean and safe environment is every child’s right. Regrettably, despite COVID-19 putting the spotlight on the importance of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to prevent the spread of disease, most people in Eswatini, including school-going children, do not have access to quality WASH services. People living in rural areas, and informal urban settlements are the most vulnerable and the most affected. Sanitation coverage in Eswatini is relatively low according to the MICS 2014, 58% of the population have access to safely managed sanitation, in rural areas about 22 % of the rural population either have access to unimproved facilities (8 %) or practice open defecation (14 %). Yet, the consequences of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene on children and their families can be fatal. Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old and is responsible for about 8 per cent of all deaths among children under age 5 worldwide. In Eswatini 9.5 % of deaths in children under 5 years of age are caused by diarrhea. A significant proportion of diarrheal disease can be prevented through safe drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene. The Eswatini National Sanitation and hygiene Policy 2019 notes that a majority of the mortality and morbidity are attributable to unsafe water, poor sanitation and insufficient hygiene.

To enhance the quality of services, which is critical for the development of human capital and the attainment of SDGs, the Government of the Kingdom of Eswatini must improve its investments in climate-resilient WASH. The need for investment and responses that are robust to climate uncertainties including WASH climate-resilient infrastructure and WASH systems that help in building community resilience is undeniable. Water is the primary medium through which much of the impact of global warming and climate change will be felt. Climate change is disrupting weather patterns, leading to extreme weather events, unpredictable water availability, exacerbating water scarcity and contaminating water supplies. Such impacts can drastically affect the quantity and quality of water that children need to survive. Globally one billion children are the most at risk of the impacts of climate change. More than ever before, the Government and its development partners should pay attention to the level and quality of investments in WASH services and climate adaptation and mitigation.

In 2018, a WASH financing study was conducted in Eswatini, as part of a regional initiative to assess sources of sector financing, how finance is channeled through different institutions, the quality and equity of financing, possible financial gaps and future financing options to achieve sector goals. The study utilised the WHO Track-fin methodology. Most of the findings are still up to date. The main gap in knowledge is in climate finance.

UNICEF is increasingly working with the government to make public resources work better for children in the Kingdom of Eswatini. Under the programme stream known as public finance for children (PF4C), UNICEF’s engagement can be broadly organized into four areas: (i) measuring and monitoring social spending, (ii) maximizing the impact of spending (iii) increasing investment in social sectors, including WASH, and (iv) strengthening public financial management capacities of government ministries and departments. Therefore, this consultancy is part of UNICEF Eswatini’ s larger efforts to influence WASH financing and expenditure patterns to achieve SDGs.


Under the guidance and oversight of the UNICEF Chief of Child Survival and Development, with technical assistance from the Public Finance and WASH Specialists in ESARO and Eswatini Country Office and in close partnership with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and other key stakeholders, the overall objective of this assignment is to: (i) produce a WASH Budget Brief and (ii) Climate Financing Brief. The two briefs should aim to assess WASH and climate change expenditures and sources of financing for the last 5 years with a much greater emphasis on the current year (2022/2023). The consultant should analyse the size, composition, and equity of WASH and climate change expenditures, looking at trends in the investment in WASH for the past 5 years to better contextualize the findings

The specific objectives are as follows:

• To assess the extent to which the national budgets for the past five years including the current fiscal year (2022/23) address the WASH financing needs of the population of Eswatini.
• To analyze trends in the financing of climate change interventions to identify challenges and opportunities for improving the quality of public and private investments in climate mitigation and adaptation in Eswatini.

Scope of Work:

The assignment has two main components:

1. WASH Budget Brief

Guided by the ESARO guidelines on producing WASH budget briefs, the consultant is expected to assess the extent to which the current budget addresses WASH financing needs. In particular, the analysis should cover the following: (i) sources and types of WASH financing including from the government, donors and the private sector, (ii) the size of total WASH spending over the past five years including the current fiscal year, (iii) composition of WASH expenditures by programme (water, sanitation, and hygiene), economic classification, and policy priorities as articulated in national and sectoral policies, and (iv) credibility and execution of WASH budgets, and (v) any public-private partnerships on WASH. The brief should also examine systemic issues such as visibility of all elements of WASH in government budgets, data and information to inform allocation decisions, and accountability for WASH expenditures.

In producing the brief, the consultant is also expected to review relevant reports including the 2018 ESARO WASH financing study especially on sources of WASH financing notably: tariffs, transfer, taxes, repayable financing, as well as public-private partnerships.

2. Climate Financing Brief

Using the same structure as the WASH budget brief, the consultant is expected to examine (i) sources and types of climate financing including from the government, donors and private sector, (ii) the size of total climate spending over the past five years including the current fiscal year, on key climate mitigation and adaptation programmes, (iii) composition of climate spending by programme, economic classification, and policy priorities, and (iv) credibility and execution of relevant budgets, and (v) any public-private partnerships for climate change projects. The brief should also assess structural issues such as the visibility of climate change in government budgets, and the level of integration of relevant plans into government budgets.

Work Assignment Overview                        
Tasks/Milestone:Deliverables/Outputs:TimelineEstimate Budget
Preparation of Work planWork plan, timeframe, methodology and instruments/tools for data collectionWorkplan5 days10 %
WASH Budget BriefConsult with the WASH stakeholders and selected MNRE and MOH, MOF staff about the objectives and scope of the analysisReview relevant national and sector policies and plans as well as progress reportsUndertake a desk review of existing evidence about WASH financing in Eswatini, including donor and government reportsAnalyse budget documents to estimate the size, composition, equity, and credibility of expendituresConduct interviews with key informants to better understand trends and underlying reasons behind financing and expenditure trends.Produce a well-edited brief. WASH Budget brief (maximum 15 pages)15 days35%
WASH and Climate Financing Excel Sheet Review of relevant budget documents and global databases about WASH and climate change financing.Entering all data in an Excel sheetCleaning and organization of the dataSharing data with the Government for validationFinal presentation and labelling of data WASH and Climate Financing Excel sheet with all financial and other data about WASH and climate finances used in the analysis 5 days20%
Climate Financing BriefConsult with the relevant stakeholders including ministries, departments and non-state actors about the objectives and scope of the analysisReview relevant national and sector policies and plans as well as progress reportsUndertake a desk review of existing evidence about climate financing in Eswatini, including donor and government reportsAnalyse budget documents to estimate the size, composition, equity, and credibility of expenditures on climate change.Conduct interviews with key informants to better understand trends and underlying reasons behind financing and expenditure trends.Produce a well-edited brief.Climate Financing Policy Brief (maximum 15 pages) andFinal report with recommendations on the consultancy (maximum 10 pages)15 days35%
Total40 days40 days100%

Minimum Qualifications required Advanced university degree in economics, public financial management, development studies or related area

Languages: English

Administrative details:

Visa assistance required: if International

a) Consultant will provide an all-inclusive cost in the financial proposal, factoring in all cost implications for the required assignment.

b) Consultant will include the cost of travel and accommodation for field trips. Other general conditions to be applied are as follows:
i. The consultant shall arrange his/her own workspace, office equipment, supplies, etc.
ii. Expected expenses should be part of the submitted quotation/estimates
iii. Except for the costs included in the financial proposal, UNICEF will not pay for any other expenses incurred when implementing this assignment.

c) Confidentiality:
i. The documents produced during the period of this consultancy will be treated as strictly confidential, and the rights of distribution or publication will reside solely with UNICEF.
ii. The contract will include other general terms defined by UNICEF.
iii. The consultant shall sign the Declaration of Impartiality and Confidentiality Form.

Knowledge/Expertise/Skills required:

Although this is an individual consultancy, the bidder, who should be experienced in WASH and climate financing is encouraged to work with a WASH expert, given the complexity of the assignment. The CVs and total fees of both individuals should be included in the consultants’ bid.

The consultant should possess the following:

• Advanced university degree in economics, public financial management, development studies or related area.
• Minimum of 8 years of working on budget analysis focusing on WASH and/or climate financing issues/public sector financing.
• Strong data analysis skills, including advanced Excel-based on previous work conducted involving quantitative data analysis
• Excellent report writing skills- evidence of similar work.
• 2 years of experience in policy development)
• A strong commitment to delivering timely and high-quality results–i.e., evidence of similar work

Payment of professional fees

Payment of professional fees will be based on the submission of agreed deliverables. UNICEF reserves the right to withhold payment in case the deliverables submitted are not up to the required standard or in case of delays in submitting the deliverables on the part of the consultant.

Administrative issues:

• The selection and conditions of service of consultant will be governed by and subject to UNICEF’s Policies and General Terms and Conditions for individual consultants/contractors.
• No contract may commence unless the contract is signed by both UNICEF and the consultant/contractor. Consultant/Contractor will be required to complete mandatory online courses (e.g. Ethics, Prevention of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse and Security) upon receipt of offer and before the signature of contract.
• Consultant/Contractor will be required to sign the Health Statement for consultants/contractors and to share an applicable proof of health insurance covering medical evacuation (if travel is involved) prior to taking up the assignment.

How to Apply:
Interested candidates should submit an online application through the Talent Management System (TMS).
Incomplete applications will not be considered. If you have not been contacted within 2 months of the closing date, please accept that your application was unsuccessful. Regret emails will be sent only to shortlisted/contacted candidates.

For every Child, you demonstrate…

UNICEF’s values of Care, Respect, Integrity, Trust, and Accountability (CRITA).

To view our competency framework, please visit here.

UNICEF is committed to diversity and inclusion within its workforce, and encourages all candidates, irrespective of gender, nationality, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including persons living with disabilities, to apply to become a part of the organization.

UNICEF has a zero-tolerance policy on conduct that is incompatible with the aims and objectives of the United Nations and UNICEF, including sexual exploitation and abuse, sexual harassment, abuse of authority and discrimination. UNICEF also adheres to strict child safeguarding principles. All selected candidates will be expected to adhere to these standards and principles and will therefore undergo rigorous reference and background checks. Background checks will include the verification of academic credential(s) and employment history. Selected candidates may be required to provide additional information to conduct a background check.


Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted and advance to the next stage of the selection process.

Individuals engaged under a consultancy or individual contract will not be considered “staff members” under the Staff Regulations and Rules of the United Nations and UNICEF’s policies and procedures, and will not be entitled to benefits provided therein (such as leave entitlements and medical insurance coverage). Their conditions of service will be governed by their contract and the General Conditions of Contracts for the Services of Consultants and Individual Contractors. Consultants and individual contractors are responsible for determining their tax liabilities and for the payment of any taxes and/or duties, in accordance with local or other applicable laws.

The selected candidate is solely responsible to ensure that the visa (applicable) and health insurance required to perform the duties of the contract are valid for the entire period of the contract. The candidate may also be subject to inoculation (vaccination) requirements, including against SARS-CoV-2 (Covid).

Advertised: 05 May 2022 South Africa Standard Time
Deadline: 18 May 2022 South Africa Standard Time