International Consultant: Assess the impact of environmental drivers and climate change on migration trends and relevant protection needs in Ethiopia via ReliefWeb

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 🇪🇹

Vacancy No: IOM-CFA/046/22


Position Title: International Consultant –Assess the impact of environmental drivers and climate change on migration trends and relevant protection needs in Ethiopia


Duty Station: Addis Ababa


Classification: Consultant


Posting Period : 01.04.2022 – 15.04.2022


Duration of Consultancy: four months

1. Project Context and Scope:

Established in 1951, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) is the leading intergovernmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners. IOM is dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services and advice to governments and migrants. IOM Ethiopia through Migration Management Unit (MMU) works closely with the Government of Ethiopia (GoE) to improve migration management and governance. It also supports the government in countering trafficking in persons (TIP) and smuggling of migrants (SoM) and promoting safe, orderly and regular labour migration channels as well as the migration-development nexus.

Ethiopia is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to climate variability because commerce and food sources are highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and natural resources.[1] Agriculture accounts for approximately 40% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 75% of the country’s workforce relies on agriculture work to sustain their daily lives.[2] Concurrently, most persons who migrate irregularly do so in pursuit of work opportunities. As climate change influences agricultural trends in Ethiopia and makes former types of agricultural work unfeasible and thus economically non-viable, it is possible that an increased number of persons may resort to irregular migration to pursue work. Indeed, IOM’s EUTF-funded Joint Initiative Programme has been working with environmental migrant returnees from farming communities in Habru Woreda, Amhara Region, who migrated irregularly due to adverse climate change and environmental impacts on their livelihoods. [3]

IOM is implementing a three-year program funded by the Government of the Netherlands titled Cooperation on Migration and Partnerships for Sustainable Solutions (COMPASS). The overall objective of this three-year multi-country initiative to be implemented from the 1st of January 2021 to the 31st of December 2023 is to contribute the achievement of medium-term results (outcomes) based on four COMPASS intervention pillars: (1) Protection, (2) Smuggling and Trafficking, (3) Awareness and (4) Returns and Reintegration.

COMPASS’ design and implementation follows a multi-level, ecological approach to migrant protection and assistance. The approach is primarily aimed at reducing unsafe and irregular migration and towards generating sustainable outcomes for migrants, their families and communities. To do this, COMPASS follows a Result-Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBME) approach, which refers to the shift from focusing on the inputs and activities (resources and procedures) to focusing on the achievement of the short, medium- and long-term goals in the form of sustainable benefits for direct and indirect beneficiaries[4]. The ecological approach assumes that intervention efforts focused on the individual level are not sufficient to achieve sustainable and meaningful development in protecting migrants and avoiding unsafe migration. The approach considers higher social arrangements and includes the community and the broader society governed by States. COMPASS ecological approach comprises three mutually reinforcing intervention components:

  1. a service delivery approach whereby IOM maximizes its expertise and network of governmental and non-governmental partners to ensure delivery and accessibility of cost-efficient services to individual migrants, their families and communities, and governments.
  2. a capacity development approach to improve COMPASS programme stakeholders’ capabilities to provide better and migrant inclusive services; better plan, coordinate and implement interventions aimed at addressing migration challenges; and
  3. an evidence-based and learning approach to enable continuous improvement in migration governance programmes, policies and strategies through generation and timely dissemination of migration governance relevant knowledge products through research and M&E to inform evidence-based policy and programming decisions.

In line with these approaches, the programme plans to achieve its overarching goal through the realization of the following four medium term outcomes based on the four COMPASS intervention pillars of (1) Protection, (2) Counter-trafficking and Smuggling, (3) Awareness and (4) Returns and Reintegration.

Outcome 1: Migrants from all genders and diverse groups and their families are better empowered to pursue sustainable resolution of vulnerabilities and reintegration

Outcome 2: Target communities with high mobility are better empowered to facilitate the protection of migrants, sustainable reintegration of returnees and to implement initiatives that prevent irregular migration.

Outcome 3: A conducive policy and legal framework for migrant protection, combatting trafficking and smuggling, and promoting safe and dignified return and sustainable reintegration is enabled.

Outcome 4: Multi-sectoral coordination between and among states and non-state actors is enhanced to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the protection of the rights of vulnerable migrants in line with international standards.

As part of Outcome 2, COMPASS will support the development of evidence-based protection programmes focused on awareness-raising campaigns that target drivers of irregular and unsafe migration (i), sustainable reintegration (ii) and community capacity building (iii), and their adjustment to the evolving context. To address the changing context, COMPASS, in collaboration with the research consultant, will conduct research focusing on the impact of environmental drivers and climate change on migration trends and relevant protection needs in Ethiopia.

Effective migration management depends on many factors such as: a conducive environment to include effective policy frameworks, a nuanced understanding of the climate and environmental drivers of migration, how they interact with other, existing drivers and the migration patterns that emerge from these drivers and the engagement and participation of migrants and returnees in the development of policy and programming solutions. [5]

Research and up-to-date evidence are the key starting point for any intervention, because the impact of climate change and environmental degradation is highly contextual and migration patterns are constantly evolving, as people seek to survive and adapt to climate change. The results of the research could, for example, reveal potential connections with trafficking practices, namely whether linkages exist between environmental and climate change and migration patterns, and to what extent migrants resort to criminal networks. Furthermore, it will be integral to assess the existing policy landscape and any coherence between climate-change policies and migrant protection to assess the structures and policy gaps. This information should be coordinated with activities according to the programme-wide research agenda.

In line with the overall research strategy under COMPASS, the results of the different findings on trends, vulnerabilities and protection needs will be disseminated at the national level in review/validation workshops that will pave the way for the identification of possible action points. These results will also support the global knowledge developed by IOM under COMPASS and support cross-border initiatives when applicable. To guarantee the ownership by national authorities, all research initiatives will be conducted in close coordination with the National Partnership Coalition led by the Office of the Attorney General.

IOM intends to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the impact of environmental drivers and climate change on migration trends and relevant protection needs, as well as the strengths and gaps in policies meant to address the intersections of migration, protection and climate-change in Ethiopia.

The research should use both primary and secondary sources, covering both qualitative and quantitative data available in Ethiopia. A combination of methodologies will be used to ensure adequate, reliable, and valid data is collected for the mapping exercise. The consultant should conduct necessary primary data collection through surveys, interviews, field visits, focus group discussions, e-mails, etc. A desk review will also be conducted for triangulating and building on existing information for the assigned tasks. This will include review of relevant studies/research already conducted (including by development partners) in the areas of climate change and migration and consultation with relevant officials and local service providers. The consultant will come up with a comprehensive methodology in addition to one suggested at the inception stage of the assignment.

The following are some examples of research questions that could guide the study, but that the researcher should not be limited to:

  • How well is the nexus between migration, environment and climate change reflected in the Ethiopian policy landscape? E.g., is displacement/migration adequately reflected in DRR and climate-related policies (e.g., Climate Change, NAP, INDC, DRR, National Development, Green Economy plans and policies) and vice versa?
  • How is climate change and environmental degradation impacting the study area? What have the changes been in the last 10 years?
  • Which communities in the study area are most vulnerable to climate change and environmental degradation? What sectors do they gain their livelihoods from (agriculture, foraging in forest, pastoralism or livestock keeping, bee keeping?) And how have these livelihoods changed with the changing climate?
  • How do the seasonal climate and environmental changes affect migration and displacement in the study area? Do significant patterns exist or are there any that are developing? Include both internal and cross-border/international migration?
  • What are the vulnerabilities that environmental migrants experience pre, during and post migration? What are the challenges they are facing? How do the seasonal climate and environmental changes affect migration?

2. Organizational Department / Unit to which the Consultant is contributing: Cooperation on Migration and Partnerships for Sustainable Solutions (COMPASS) PX.0263 – Migration Management Unit (MMU). Consultancy will be under the direct supervision of the Migrant Protection Programme Manager and the overall supervision of the Migration Management Unit Coordinator.

All inclusive fee: $15,000

3. Category B Consultants: Tangible and measurable outputs of the work assignment

The contracted consultant will be expected to carry out the following activities:

  • Preparation, Stakeholder Engagement and Capacity Building
  • Stakeholder mapping and analysis to promote participatory research
  • Request necessary clearances and authorization by local and/or governmental authorities
  • Training and supervision of researchers, fieldworkers and enumerators.
  • Assessing needs for dedicated ethical standards tools (i.e., Code of Conduct), ad hoc safeguards, protection protocols, and referral mechanisms
  • Informed consent and data protection and management

The contracted consultant will be expected to produce the following deliverables. Category B Consultant hired to deliver a report on a four-instalment payment basis:

First deliverable â€“ Inception report inclusive of the proposed methodology, work plan, and approved data collection tools. Deliverable date to be determined at the time of the contract signing, deliverable to be completed approximately one month after contract approved. Payment percentage of 25% upon completion of first deliverable.

Second deliverable â€“ Outline a report, including descriptive statistics and key findings resulting from data collection and analysis efforts. Deliverable date to be determined at the time of the contract signing, deliverable to be completed approximately 1.5 months after completion of the first deliverable. Payment percentage of 35% upon completion of second deliverable.

Third deliverable â€“ First draft of a final report, and corresponding cost recommendations that detail human and capital infrastructures needed to provide appropriate MHPSS services to returning migrants, their families and communities. The report will outline mental health and psychosocial needs of returning migrants, their families and communities, and the mapping of existing services, institutions, professionals and community structures, highlighting capacity and structural gaps. Key recommendations should include an action-plan for raising awareness around needed infrastructures and capacities to build a response that will address returning migrants’ present and future mental health and psychosocial support needs. Deliverable date to be determined at the time of the contract signing, deliverable to be completed approximately 2.5 months after contract signing.

Fourth deliverable â€“ Final versions of all prior materials, updated based on a validation workshop and feedback from IOM colleagues. Deliverable date to be determined at the time of the contract signing, deliverable to be completed approximately 3 months after contract signing. Payment percentage of 40% upon completion of fourth deliverable.

4. Performance indicators for the evaluation of results

  • The inception report must include an excellent and nuanced presentation of the context, a clear methodology, a detailed and realistic work plan and a strategy for the use of the data collection tool as per the terms of reference.
  • Ensure that the reports are comprehensive, detailed, and submitted in a timely manner. Ensure that report language is accurate, clear and free of jargon, and reflects IOM’s definitions and use of terminology.
  • Ensure that the recommendations are realistic, include all actors and consider IOM’s mandate.
  • Ensure good facilitation skills during the validation workshop and the ability to accommodate the inputs of various actors.

5. Education, Experience and/or skills required

  • An advanced university degree in Migration, Development Studies, Social Work, Sociology, or any other relevant social science disciplines. Minimum of seven years’ professional experience in research, capacity development or evaluation related to migration management, counter-trafficking, child protection, or community mobilization/engagement**Experience**
  • Thorough understanding of migration, human trafficking and community development dynamics in Ethiopia and the wider region is required.
  • Demonstrated experience in working with research teams.
  • Strong writing, analytical and reporting skills in English are required.

6. Travel required

The research component requires local travels. The consultant must develop a clear sample plan to link migration hotspot locations with drought-affected areas in Ethiopia, together with the IOM Ethiopia team, and in consideration of recent security restrictions. Currently, drought-affected region in Ethiopia are parts of Oromia, Afar, the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ (SNNP) and Somali regions. Thus, the specific sample location will be determined in the later stage of the assignment. DSA allowance will be considered and discussed in line with travel plans, to be determined at contract signing.

7. Competencies


  • Inclusion and respect for diversity: respects and promotes individual and cultural differences; encourages diversity and inclusion wherever possible.
  • Integrity and transparency: maintains high ethical standards and acts in a manner consistent with organizational principles/rules and standards of conduct.
  • Professionalism: demonstrates ability to work in a composed, competent and committed manner and exercises careful judgment in meeting day-to-day challenges.

Core Competencies – behavioural indicators

  • Teamwork: develops and promotes effective collaboration within and across units to achieve shared goals and optimize results.
  • Delivering results: produces and delivers quality results in a service-oriented and timely manner; is action-oriented and committed to achieving agreed outcomes.
  • Managing and sharing knowledge: continuously seeks to learn, share knowledge and innovate.
  • Accountability: takes ownership for achieving the Organization’s priorities and assumes responsibility for own action and delegated work.
  • Communication: encourages and contributes to clear and open communication; explains complex matters in an informative, inspiring and motivational way.Skills
  • Proven ability to establish and maintain strong working relations with relevant government and non-governmental counterparts, international organizations, civil society and private sector entities.
  • High level of computer literacy; proficient in MS Office applications.
  • Ability to manage time efficiently, effectively handle multiple tasks and competing priorities, as well as meet tight deadlines.

How to apply

Interested candidates are invited to submit their application following the application specifications mentioned below via our e-mail address [email protected], by 15th of April, 2022 at the latest, referring the position title and Vacancy number in the subject line of your email; applicants who do not follow the required application procedure will automatically be disqualified from the competition.


a) Technical proposal outline:

I. Conceptual framework (2-3 pages)

II. Detailed methodology (2-3 pages)

III. Work plan (1-2 pages)

IV. Explanation of the consultants’ suitability for the assignment (1 page) including names and contacts of three recent professional referees

V. Two examples of previous similar work

VI. Names and CVs of individuals or team members proposed, highlighting their experience relevant to this study and their roles in the achievement of the assignment.

b) Financial proposal:

I. The proposal will include a lump sum cost for the assignment

II. A breakdown of the costs related to all aspects of the consultancy (consultancy fee, travel, and the assignment deliverables).

Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted.

We strongly encourage qualified women to apply!