TOR: Systems Analysis of the Sanitation Market in Lusaka, Zambia

Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP)

Lusaka, Zambia 🇿🇲

Name / title: TOR: Systems Analysis of the Sanitation Market in Lusaka (Zambia)

Position Type: Consultancy 

Organization Type: International Organization

Degree Required: Post-Grad (Or Equivalent)

Main text body for advertisement:

Systems Analysis of the Sanitation Market in Lusaka (Zambia)

Phase 3: Stakeholder Engagement, Advocacy & Action

1.            About Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP)

WSUP is a not for profit making company with a focus on delivering sustainable water and sanitation services to the urban poor and vulnerable communities. WSUP operates a tri-sector partnership between the private sector, civil society, and academia, focused on addressing the increasing global problem of inadequate access to water and sanitation for the urban poor. WSUP believes that access to safe and affordable water, improved sanitation and improved hygiene practices underpin poverty reduction through impacts on health, education, and livelihoods. This is supported by the belief that sustainable and viable improvements can only be made by strengthening the technical capacity and financial viability of local service providers.

1.1         WSUP Zambia

WSUP has had a permanent presence in Zambia since 2008, working on a variety of projects for progression and development of the WASH sector for the benefit of low income communities and consumers – supporting both private and mandated service providers, Government Departments and the regulator.

2. About the project

WSUP received funding in 2020 from the Waterloo Foundation to examine and explore the sanitation market in Lusaka, including public, private and informal dimensions, using a system thinking lens. Analysis conducted under this project has identified that the formal and informal dynamics behind the allocation and subsequent disbursement of resources to MWDSEP by the MoF is an area that WSUP and other sector stakeholders would like a more comprehensive understanding of. These dynamics are the central focus of this ToR.

2.1 Approach 

WSUP, with the support of expert Systems Thinkers, has spent significant time in 2020 analysing the Sanitation Market in Lusaka through a systems lens. This approach has been framed around the overall question:

Overall question: how can financial allocation to the sanitation sector have improved and sustainable impact in Lusaka?

In order to analyse this question, it has been broken down into several constituent sub-systems. The sub-system related to this TOR is:

Sub-system: “how does the WASH sector attract finance?” (System map below).

This first phase has involved detailed mapping of the sub-system, drawing on many years of working in the urban WASH sector in Zambia. From this an understanding of the relationships, interdependencies, and possible leverage points has been developed. Causal loop diagrams have helped the project team look at the system in new ways and have identified possible new areas of the system where WSUP might hope to influence or act going forwards. This has led to the initiation of several research activities, including the work outlined in this ToR, to better understand key areas of the sub-system and inform WSUP’s future strategy for engagement.

3. Services required under this assignment

The systems analysis has identified the dynamics between ministries and the treasury as a key area for further research.

The assignment will be to answer key questions related to the budgeting process and the formal and informal dynamics affecting this. With support from the Zambia team, the consultant will conduct research comprising but not limited to desk research and key stakeholder consultations. The research should consider the following questions (not exhaustive):

•             What drives current levels of central government allocation to the WASH sector? Looking in comparison at other ministries also – for example Transport, Health, Social Protection etc 

o             Please note – we are not looking for a specific cost/benefit analysis. However, the consultant should include facts, figures and trends of at least five years to substantiate the analysis. It would be useful to provide ministerial budgetary submission amounts, allocation and actual disbursement with reasons, where applicable, for variation in the numbers.

•             What drives low levels of disbursement to WASH against pre-agreed budgetary allocation?

o             Perspectives of actors in Government Ministries and recipient agencies/departments should be the central focus when looking at this question.

•             How do the ministries that receive a significant budgetary allocation ensure they do – and articulate the benefits of investment into their sectors?

•             How can the WASH sector learn from other sectors in making a better case for central funding?

•             To what extent is a ministry influential in determining the amounts that are allocated to them?

•             What are the key criteria or factors actually influencing this budgetary allocation and can such be applied for the WASH sector?

•             How has been the budgetary disbursement utilisation rates for those ministries that have received substantial allocation and what lessons can this have in the WASH sector

•             Are there specific processes, capacity and skills advantages by those ministries that have received increased allocation?

To answer these questions, WSUP is seeking an experienced researcher with a strong track record in understanding the pollical economy, determinants and trends of financing. Experience of working with other non-WASH sectors who have been able to gain significant central funding is a major advantage. The consultant need not have experience in the WASH sector, or experience of systems thinking approaches, although both of these would be an added advantage. The consultant will be required to work locally, therefore  we do not anticipate any international travel. 

3.1.        Assignment Activities 

The consultant is required to conduct the following core activities under this assignment:

•             Conduct key informant interviews to gather information on the budgetary process

•             Present a comparative study with at least two other non-WASH sectors highlighting allocation and disbursement trends, spend where possible and outputs

•             Conduct a political economy analysis with other stakeholders to understand the formal and informal drivers behind budgetary allocation to different Ministries.

•             Recommendations for ways in which the WASH sector can learn from more successful Ministries to better advocate for resources in future budget cycles.

•             Participate in and or lead final workshops after submission of the main report  by 31st  March,2022

3.2.        Assignment deliverables

A brief monthly report for each of the activities indicated above. The main deliverable under this assignment is a final report in MS Word and a PowerPoint slide deck suitable for presentation to government and WASH sector stakeholders explaining the findings and recommendations.

4. Schedule of Work 

This consultancy will expire at the end of the project on 31st of March,2022. WSUP require the draft report to be submitted by the end of February,2022 to allow time for review as well as  the dissemination workshop before the end of the project. The successful consultant/agency should ensure sufficient capacity and availability within this period. It is estimated that this assignment will require 25 full time days of work over a period of three months.

5. Required Skills and Experience

1.            Post-graduate degree level in a relevant field i.e development studies, political science, international relations, social sciences or similar.

2.            Demonstrated experience working in or with Zambian government Ministries

3.            Demonstrated experience facilitating large group workshops in public service contexts

4.            Demonstrable experience in clear and concise report writing.

5.            Experience conducting political economy analyses would be an added advantage

6. Reporting and liaison 

The Task Manager for this work will be Sibongile Ndaba Luwabelwa  [email protected] who is the Business Development Lead from the WSUP Zambia team. The consultant will work closely with the Task Manager. This will include brief weekly meetings to discuss progress, findings and challenges and the following week’s plan.

7. Bidding and Bid Evaluation Procedure  

This assignment will charge a rate per day for the number of days available on this assignment. The contract will be time bound from signature up to 31st March 2022 or considered completed once the maximum agreed budget ceiling has been reached. 

7.1 Budget

Consultancy fee is to be proposed by a potential individual or organization and agreed with WSUP. The Consultant’s fees will therefore comprise simply the day-rate and a detailed listing of day allocations to different task components (as listed in 3.2). The day rate should be inclusive of all taxes including With-Holding Tax (WHT) and necessary logistic expenses to be incurred during the assignment. In this TOR we do not pre-specify the maximum day rate or total budget, but price reasonableness will be a significant factor in bid evaluation.

7.2 Terms of Payment

Payment is made within 28 days of submission of invoice. All duly completed invoices must include number of days worked, signature consultant(s), and counter signature from a WSUP representative. Any reimbursable amount must be agreed with the client before incurring it.

7.3 Bidding Procedure 

Interested individuals and/or firms should submit a proposal with the following;

1.            2 page research Methodology: 

1.            Including an understanding of scope of work (half page)

2.            Clear approach for responding to core research questions above

3.            How the Political Economy Analysis will be conducted (in brief)

4.            A work plan with corresponding timelines for the assignment and an approach for engaging stakeholders

2.            Describe in brief the support required from WSUP Zambia (half page preferably a table linked to activities)

3.            Individual CV(s) of personnel to work on the contract (not more than two pages each)

4.            A description of recent and relevant work(two pages-summarised.)

5.            A budget using the daily rate (please note that all fees and costs should be in Kwacha) be inclusive of all relevant taxes including VAT clearly stated

Clarification queries about the bidding process can be sent at any time to [email protected] queries and responses will be circulated to all bidders without identifying the questioner.

Evaluation criteria will be as follows:

1.            Formal adherence to bidding requirements

2.            Strength of relevant experience

3.            Evidence of understanding of the task and the key benefits to WSUP

4.            Strength of methodology (2 pages max)

5.            Value for money

The proposal will be independently scored on each criterion by a panel comprising three WSUP managers. Top scoring bids will be invited to a short panel interview which will also be scored. If the quantitative scoring does not indicate a clear consensus choice, final selection will be by discussion/negotiation among the members of the panel. WSUP reserves the right to negotiate the scope and pricing with the selected consultant to best ensure that these services will be delivered within the available budget.

Consultants may wish to propose different approaches that will deliver the required benefits for WSUP whilst remaining within the budget available. All proposals must be electronically submitted to [email protected] by 26th November 2021. The consultant should be ready to start immediately after award of contract. Note that late submissions will not be considered unless mitigating circumstances acceptable to WSUP are communicated to WSUP before the deadline.


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